Archives for October 2017

Oct
28
2017

Take Enough Vitamin D3

Many people supplement with 300 to 400 IU of vitamin D3, but do they take enough vitamin D3? There is a simple way of finding out: ask your doctor to order a 25-hydroxyvitamin D blood test.   This will show whether the gut absorbed enough of the essential vitamin. It will also show whether or not your vitamin D3 capsules or tablets were strong enough. It is now generally accepted that a good range of the vitamin D blood level is between 50 and 80 ng/ml. Unfortunately many Americans who come down with various diseases have blood levels of less than 30 ng/ml. Here are some facts about what a lack of vitamin D3 can cause.

Increased risk of mortality with lower vitamin D levels in ICU patients

  1. A New England Journal study from 2009 reported about 1100 patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU). Their average vitamin D blood level was only 16 ng/ml. They tracked the mortality rates depending on the vitamin D blood level. Insufficient vitamin D levels showed an association with a mortality rate of 45%. An intermediate level had a mortality rate of 35%. And a satisfactory level of vitamin D had a mortality of only16%. Between the low level of vitamin D and the normal level there was a 3-fold difference in mortality!
  2. Another study from 2015 repeated the mortality study with 135 ICU patients. Researchers correlated Vitamin D blood levels with mortality rates of patients. When vitamin D levels were below 12 ng/ml, there was a mortality rate of 32.2%. Patients with higher levels of vitamin D had a mortality rate of 13.2%. The authors concluded that vitamin D blood levels were an independent risk factor for mortality. Patients less than 12 ng/ml had a 2.4-fold higher risk of dying than patients with normal vitamin D levels.

Do patients with multiple sclerosis take enough vitamin D3?

Perhaps one of the earliest results of vitamin D3 research was the following observation. More than 90% of patients with multiple sclerosis were deficient in vitamin D blood levels. Their levels were below 20 ng/ml. Other researchers showed that vitamin D could directly tone down the aggressiveness of the immune cells of MS patients. These were the ones that attacked the myelin sheath. As a result of this knowledge it is important for MS patients to take high enough vitamin D3 supplements. When they reach good vitamin D blood levels their MS is better controlled.

Canada as a northern country has 291 MS patients per 100,000 people. Contrast this to 110-140 MS patients per 100,000 people in the northern US (between the 37th parallel and the US/Canadian border). In addition south of the 37th parallel there are only 57-78 cases of MS per 100,000 people. Researchers have concluded that the less sun light people get, the higher the rate of MS in the population will be. However, instead of sun exposure you can supplement with vitamin D3 capsules to get the blood vitamin D levels up to the range of between 50 and 80 ng/ml.

Do stroke patients take enough vitamin D3?

Strokes are very common. About 6.8 million Americans survive a stroke and live with various disabilities. 15% die shortly after their stroke. 40% are left with moderate to severe disabilities. Many require special care.

  1. Studies have shown that patients with the lowest level of vitamin D have the poorest functional outcomes. Moreover, for every 10 ng/ml decrease in vitamin D levels the odds of a healthy recovery 3 months after the stroke fell by about half. This was independent of age and the initial stroke severity.
  2. In another 2015 study from South Korea 818 stroke patients took tests to evaluate whether they had adequate vitamin D blood levels. There was a clear division between those whose levels were higher than 10 ng/ml or lower. When the vitamin D level was higher, there was a 90% better recovery from their stroke after 3 months. In comparison those whose vitamin D levels were below 10 ng/ml had poor recovery rates. Experts say that vitamin D levels should stay in the range between 50 and 80 ng/ml. This will prevent numerous diseases.

Do diabetics take enough vitamin D3?

  1. Vitamin D3 can silence diabetes genes in connection with the right diet and cofactors of zinc and magnesium. A Mediterranean diet can stabilize the metabolism and fight inflammation. Zinc and magnesium are important cofactors in enzymes necessary to prevent diabetes. Vitamin D3 and omega-3intake are helping to control inflammation and preserve beta cells in the pancreas in diabetes patients. This is important for continued production of insulin.
  2. A Chinese research team found that vitamin D3 protects beta cells in the pancreas from dying off. The finding was that vitamin D3 receptors in the insulin producing cells prevented the dying off of these cells, as long as there was enough vitamin D available. Insulin production by the pancreas remained effective. And insulin is vital for long-term survival of diabetes patients. The key for diabetes patients is to take adequate doses of vitamin D3 to protect their insulin producing beta cells.
  3. A 2015 Italian study showed that micro vascular complications in diabetes patients were high, if the vitamin D3 blood levels were low. If patients had high levels of vitamin D3, there were no complications such as retinopathy or nephropathy. But if levels were below 20 ng/ml, damages were significant in the capillaries of the eyes and kidneys.

Do patients with inflammatory conditions take enough vitamin D3?

What do the lining of the arteries, the inflamed joints, a degenerative meniscus and heart attacks and strokes have in common? It is the inflammation that changes the body chemistry. It gets even more complicated, because the extra calories that we consume get stored as visceral fat. This is done automatically when you eat too much sugar and starchy foods. When the glycogen stores are full, any surplus sugar gets metabolized by the liver into triglycerides, fatty acids and LDL cholesterol and gets stored as body fat. The most active fat is the visceral fat between our guts and around our body organs. This produces interleukins and other inflammatory cytokines that circulate in the blood causing inflammation in all our arteries. Interleukin-6 is an inflammatory cytokine. High interleukin-6 levels contribute to causation of various cancers.

This 2015 study from Seattle University followed 218 obese postmenopausal women with a body mass index of larger than 25.0 for 12 months. Both received weight loss intervention and either 2000 IU of vitamin D3 daily or a placebo pill. Both groups lost about 5 to 10% of weight in 12 months. However, the interleukin-6 level of the vitamin D3 group had a reduction of 37.3%. This was in stark contrast to the placebo group where the interleukin-6 level reduction was only 17.2%. This type of research shows the incredible power of vitamin D3. This likely is the reason why several cancer frequencies can show a reduction with regular vitamin D3 supplementation.

Attention deficit disorder and vitamin D3

  1. Other research compared a group of 37 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD to 37 normal children. Blood levels of vitamin D were 19.11±10.10 ng/ml in the ADHD group and 28.67±13.76 ng/ml in the normal group. Other researchers have found similar findings, establishing that very low vitamin D levels have a connection with ADHD.
  2. A prospective study from Spain involving 1,650 mother-child pairs investigated the effect of mother’s vitamin D level during her pregnancy with the risk for ADHD by the time the child was 4 to 5 years old. Schoolteachers followed the standard test procedures to establish the ADHD diagnosis. The study showed that for every 10-ng/ml increment of the mother’s blood vitamin D level during her pregnancy the children had 11% less ADHD-like symptoms. The authors cautioned that it takes mega doses of vitamin D3 to reach these kinds of results. The usual 400 IU of vitamin D3 per day will not achieve the desired increase of vitamin D3 levels, but amounts of 5,000 IU to 8,000 IU are necessary to achieve this.

Schizophrenia and vitamin D3

A 2014 Meta analysis found that low vitamin D levels have an association with a 2.16-times higher probability of having schizophrenia than controls with normal vitamin D levels. Another study examined whether those patients who had an acute psychosis would have lower vitamin D blood levels than schizophrenia patients in remission or control patients without schizophrenia. Studies compared 40 patients with an acute psychosis to 41 patients in remission and 40 healthy controls. Patients with an acute psychosis had extremely low vitamin D blood levels, while patients in remission had much better vitamin D levels. Healthy controls had the best vitamin D levels.

Absorption and metabolism of vitamin D3

Magnesium plays a central role in activating vitamin D3. This publication points out that magnesium is also necessary for absorption of vitamin D3 in the gut. The activation of vitamin D3 is also partially responsible for vitamin D absorption. Both vitamin D3 and magnesium play an important role in bone and calcium metabolism. The fact that every body cell has vitamin D3 receptors shows how important it is for the maintenance of the body. Many researchers say that vitamin D3 qualifies as a hormone because of the specific effects on cells via vitamin D3 receptors.

Take Enough Vitamin D3

Take Enough Vitamin D3

Conclusion

Vitamin D3 is an important signaling hormone and vitamin that regulates the body’s calcium absorption and is responsible for bone metabolism. Research has shown that the lack of vitamin D3 causes several unrelated diseases, like rickets, multiple sclerosis, and schizophrenia. But other diseases, where a lack of vitamin D3 was present, were diabetes, attention deficit disorder and strokes. When patients with elevated inflammatory markers take vitamin D3 their interleukin-6 levels dropped by 37.3%. To achieve this, patients needed to consume at least 2000 IU. We all should have our vitamin D blood level measured from time to time. It should be between 50 and 80 ng/ml. Too many Americans are deficient in vitamin D3 and come down with the diseases mentioned! Prevention and supplementation go hand in hand. You can prevent a lot of diseases this way.

 

Oct
21
2017

Bioidentical Hormone Replacement

Recently Medical News Today published an article on bioidentical hormone replacement in the Sept. 19, 2017 edition.

Although it was partially informative, I felt that there was an underlying bias against the use of bioidentical hormone replacement. The article made it sound as if hormone replacement therapy would not be safe. But the opposite is true with bioidentical hormone replacement.

Why are many women afraid of bioidentical hormone replacement?

At the time when there was a lot of confusion about hormone replacement therapy (HRT) the results of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) made it even more confusing. After all there was one trial to show once and for all that HRT would be beneficial. The expectation was that HRT prevents osteoporosis, heart attacks and breast cancer. But the results were quite different. Instead the study found a 41% increase in strokes, 29% increase in heart attacks, 26% increase in breast cancer, 22% increase in total cardiovascular disease and a doubling in the risk for blood clots.

Missing information about synthetic hormones

What the authors of the study did not explain was the fact that it was the properties of the synthetic hormones, progestin and Premarin were responsible for the negative effects. Had research insisted to perform the study with bioidentical hormones, the results would have been quite the opposite! With bioidentical hormone replacement we see the prevention of heart attacks and clots; cancer rates are lower than controls, and the prevention of osteoporosis is another benefit. The end result is a reduction in mortality rates. But the horrifying results that are due to the use of synthetic hormones and that the WHI warned about linger on in the minds of many women.

The use of bioidentical hormone replacement

Dr. John Lee pointed out in several of his books that the physician should only replace hormone loss with bioidentical hormones. He also pointed out that physicians should only replace those hormones that are at low levels or missing. This means that the woman should have confirmatory blood tests like FSH, LH, blood estrogen and salivary progesterone. If estrogen and progesterone are missing, the physician usually starts the woman on progesterone cream first. After two months, when laboratory tests show a saturation with progesterone , the addition of estrogen can follow, typically as the Bi-Est cream. This is a mix of estriol and estradiol.

Caution to balance against estrogen dominance

Progesterone is started first to balance against the potential cancer-inducing effect of estradiol. With the addition of progesterone a balance is the result, and estrogen will not cause breast cancer. This is also why Bi-Est is used: it is a mix of estriol and estradiol. Estriol is neutral with regard to causing breast cancer. Estradiol is the main natural estrogen in a woman, so some of it is necessary to make the woman feel normal. This is how the body receptors are functioning. But estradiol alone, when not in balance with progesterone, can cause breast cancer and uterine cancer.

The key is that only women who need bioidentical hormones should receive it. There are some women whose blood tests do not show a lack of estrogen, but only a lack of progesterone. These women should receive replacement with bioidentical progesterone to re-establish the hormone balance between estradiol and progesterone.

Safety of bioidentical hormone replacement products

As I have mentioned before, the Women’s Health Initiative in 2002 showed that on Premarin and progestin, two synthetic hormone products women came down with breast cancer, heart attacks, stroke, and thromboembolic events. They were using the synthetic drugs, namely conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate. The reason these women had to suffer these side effects was because their physicians insisted in using “pure hormones that a drug company had manufactured”. But these synthetic hormones were not pure hormones; they were adulterated with side chains so that pharmaceutical companies could patent them. These side chains made the synthetic hormones not fit the body’s hormone receptors. And this is the reason why the synthetic hormones created chaos in form of breast cancer, strokes and heart attacks.

Women’s Health Initiative authors whitewashed study results

Instead of admitting their mistakes, the full truth never became public. Instead the authors of the WHI study stated that it would be necessary to limit hormone replacement in menopause to the minimum amount of synthetic hormones to control symptoms, and their use should not exceed more than 5 years. These authors never distinguished between bioidentical hormones that fit the body’s hormone receptors and the synthetic hormones that irritated or blocked the body’s hormone receptors. There are thousands of women in Europe who have been on bioidentical hormones for decades, and they are doing just fine!

Bioidentical hormones in balance have no side effects

The truth is that bioidentical hormones –as long as they are kept in balance-do not have any side effects. Bioidentical hormones are the same that a woman produces in her ovaries before menopause sets in. The production of her bioidentical hormones kept her healthy. But the treating physician needs to carefully watch the balance of the hormones in the woman who is replaced with bioidentical estrogen and progesterone. This means that she needs to get enough progesterone to counterbalance estrogen stimulation. Hormones are constantly changing and if you don’t measure them, you don’t know what you are dealing with.

Dr. Lee said to measure hormone levels

John Lee showed a long time ago that you should measure hormones and identify those women who are truly hormone deficient. These are the ones who need hormone replacement. However, physicians should use only bioidentical hormones to replace what is missing. And they should also replace only as much as necessary to normalize the levels. This is also the level where postmenopausal symptoms disappear. Dr. Lee noted: “A 10-year French study of HRT using a low-dose estradiol patch plus oral progesterone shows no increased risk of breast cancer, strokes or heart attacks”.

How is bioidentical hormone replacement done?

The best method is usually a bioidentical hormone cream applied to the forearms or to the chest wall once per day. This avoids the first-pass metabolism where the hormones, if absorbed from a pill in the gut have to pass through the liver. Part of the hormones can get metabolized and some of the hormone effect may disappear. By applying bioidentical Bi-Est cream and progesterone cream to the skin, the hormones get directly absorbed into the blood stream and can do their job without interference. The treating physician can prescribe different amounts of the bioidentical hormones depending on saliva tests or blood tests. 1 or 2 months later repeat blood or saliva tests can follow to verify that the amounts of the replacement hormones and their absorption are adequate for the patient’s need.

What are the side effects of bioidentical hormone replacement?

Normally, when estrogen and progesterone are in balance, there should be no side effect. However, in the beginning of replacement therapy sometimes one of the hormones gets too high. If this happens with estrogen replacement, the woman becomes estrogen-dominant. She would experience symptoms of bloating, fatigue, weight gain, depression, headaches, loss of sex drive. She can also develop uterine fibroids, endometriosis and hypothyroidism. It was Dr. John Lee who first described this (Ref.1). There can also be mood swings, craving for sweets, irritability, and sluggishness in the morning. The key is to cut back on the estrogen dosage; alternatively, if progesterone is low in saliva tests, this hormone may need an increase, which would rebalance estrogen. At the end of fine-tuning of bioidentical hormone replacement the woman will feel normal and have no negative side effects, but the process of fine-tuning may take several months.

Difficulties to measure progesterone levels

Dr. David Zava, PhD gave a talk on breast cancer risks. This was a presentation at the 24th Annual World Congress on Anti-Aging Medicine (Dec. 9-11, 2016) in Las Vegas that I attended. Dr. Zava, who runs the ZRT laboratory spent some time to explain how to measure progesterone in a physiological way.

Blood (serum) progesterone levels do not adequately reflect what the hormone tissue level is like in a woman’s breasts. On the other hand saliva hormone levels are giving an accurate account of what breast tissue levels are like.

Progesterone blood levels versus progesterone tissues levels

Dr. Zava gave an example of a woman who received an application of 30 mg of topical progesterone. Next, laboratory tests observed hourly progesterone levels in the serum and in the saliva. The serum progesterone levels remained at around 2 ng/ml, while the saliva progesterone levels peaked 3 to 5 hours after the application. It reached 16 ng/ml in saliva, which also represents the breast tissue progesterone level. Dr. Zava said that the important lesson to learn from this is not to trust blood progesterone levels. Too many physicians fall into this trap and order too much progesterone cream based on a misleading blood test. This leads to overdosing progesterone. With salivary progesterone levels you see the physiological tissue levels, with blood tests you don’t. Dr. Zava emphasized that testing blood or urine as progesterone hormone tests will underestimate bio-potency and lead to overdosing the patient.

Bioidentical Hormone Replacement

Bioidentical Hormone Replacement

Conclusion

Bioidentical hormone replacement, properly done, does not cause cancer, does not cause blood clots and prevents heart attacks and strokes. It also prevents osteoporosis and the associated fractures in older women. The key is that the natural hormones fit the body’s own hormone receptors. The reason why menopausal symptoms appear is that natural hormones (estrogen and progesterone) are missing. With the replacement of the missing hormones in a menopausal woman through bioidentical hormone replacement, the menopausal symptoms disappear. Contrary to the Women’s Health Initiative in 2002 when patients received synthetic hormones, there are no breast cancers, no heart attacks and no strokes with bioidentical hormone replacement. What is even better is that these women will live without all the postmenopausal problems, and their life expectancy will be about 10 years longer than without bioidentical hormone replacement.

References

Ref. 1. Dr. John R. Lee: “What your doctor may not tell you about menopause: the breakthrough book on natural hormone balance”. Sept. 2004.

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Oct
14
2017

A New Genetic Marker For Alzheimer’s

“A new genetic marker for Alzheimer’s”; so reported a study dated August 11, 2017. Most of all, they found that a genetic marker, TOMM40 was stronger than the established genetic marker APOE4. It seems like the older studies overlooked the importance of the new TOMM40 genetic marker. This new marker may have been present at the same time as APOE4.

Details of study regarding a new genetic marker for Alzheimer’s

The APOE4 is especially relevant for the formation of lipoproteins. APOE4 showed a strong association with the formation of amyloid plaque. This is located in the brain areas where Alzheimer’s disease developed. Therefore the thinking in the past was that APOE4 would be the culprit behind memory loss and Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast, the new study shows evidence that the TOMM40 genetic marker is the gene that actually orchestrates the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Thalida Em Arpawong is a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Southern California (USC) Dornsife College. She conducted research about the TOMM40 marker. Her supervisor was senior investigator Carol A. Prescott, who is a professor of psychology at the USC Dornsife College. She co-published the paper.

More info about the study involving a new genetic marker for Alzheimer’s

Professor Prescott used two verbal memory test results. They were the United States Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). In these tests immediate recall was compared to delayed recall 5 minutes later. Alzheimer’s patients have problems with short term memory recall.  In total the study examined 20,650 HRS participants and 11,391 ELSA participants. Their age was 50 years and above since this is the typical age for the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. Genetic data was part of the examination in 7,486 HRS participants and 6,898 ELSA participants. The scientists looked at 1.2 million genetic variations of the human genome to fit the memory loss. In conclusion, only one gene area, TOMM40 showed a strong association with decline in immediate and delayed memory recall.

Hence professor Carol A. Prescott summarized the findings: “The results from this study…raise the question of how many findings in other studies show an association with APOE4 that may in fact be due to TOMM40 or a combination of TOMM40 and APOE4.”

Possible future clues from a trial using TOMM40 marker

A review paper points out the start of a new trial, called TOMMOROW. The review paper points out that the location of APOE and TOMM40 are on chromosome 19 in very close proximity. Pioglitazone is a drug that controls diabetes. Patients tolerate it well. It is used in the TOMMORROW trial. As this review paper states the TOMM40 gene is responsible for the outer mitochondrion membrane. Consequently the paper states: the “outer mitochondrial membrane channel through which peptides and proteins travel into mitochondria to support mitochondrial function and biogenesis” is the key for understanding Alzheimer’s disease. Because pioglitazone is a drug that induces mitochondrial doubling the researchers hope that it will help Alzheimer’s patients.  It will probably be interesting to follow the phase 3 trial TOMMORROW, where research will observe the delay in onset of minimal cognitive impairment.

A New Genetic Marker For Alzheimer’s

A New Genetic Marker For Alzheimer’s

Conclusion

Research has found a new genetic marker for Alzheimer’s, TOMM40 that identifies a higher risk of getting Alzheimer’s disease. Its location is close to the marker APOE on chromosome 19. It appears that TOMM40 may be more reliable in identifying patients at risk for Alzheimer’s disease than the older APOE marker. As a result research has started a new phase 3 trial, called TOMMORROW. This will tell whether or not Pioglitazone, a diabetic drug maybe useful in delaying Alzheimer’s disease in high-risk patients.

Oct
07
2017

How Much Drinking During Pregnancy Is Safe?

A recent review of the literature asked: how much drinking during pregnancy is safe? To the surprise of the researchers there was no clear answer in the medical literature between 1950 and July 2016. The researchers wanted to know whether 1 or 2 alcoholic drinks in a week would show a negative effect. Or would it affect the fetus and cause fetal alcohol syndrome?

What is fetal alcohol syndrome?

A mother who drinks several drinks of alcohol per day during her pregnancy will inflict serious damage to her baby. The end result is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). There is growth deficiency, usually below the 10 percentile in terms of weight, height or both. There is a characteristic facial appearance like small eye openings and a thin upper lip. In addition severe central nervous system damage is another toxic effect of alcohol on the fetal brain. This leads to gait problems, speech and psychological problems.

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

When a pregnant woman consumes less alcoholic beverages, there may be less damage to the fetus. This partial damage to the fetus is called “fetal alcohol spectrum disorder”, which resembles the term “autism spectrum disorder”. However, these two conditions are not related.

In a child with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder some features of fetal alcohol syndrome would be present, but not all. A child with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder may be able to lead an independent life as an adult.

Present rules about drinking during pregnancy

The CDC and the FDA say that a pregnant woman should not consume any alcohol during pregnancy. It even includes the weeks before a pregnancy. In addition, it also applies to the male before he fathers a child. It is a fact that sperm and precursors of sperm are very sensitive to alcohol toxicity. A woman’s eggs are also sensitive to alcohol toxicity. There is no place for a romantic dinner with alcohol  and sex later in the evening, that leads to a pregnancy. Romance and a romantic dinner is quite possible without alcohol, if sex that leads to pregnancy is in the plans. If you plan on getting pregnant as a couple you must be responsible, male or female. In view of all of the knowledge it is just not a good idea to subject yourself to alcohol before pregnancy.

New questions about the minimum toxic amount of alcohol

A search of the literature between 1950 and July 2016 has not revealed any convincing data about what one glass of alcohol per day would do during pregnancy. Some researchers will likely want to approach this topic in the near future. There are many women in the US who drink that much during pregnancy, but do not tell their healthcare providers. Researchers would like to conduct a trial where they follow women who consume one glass of alcohol per day during pregnancy. They will want to compare that to a control group with no alcohol intake during the pregnancy. Next would be a thorough investigation of the offspring and about the presence or absence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. At the present time there is no such data. We know that some women expose themselves to these smaller amounts of alcohol. But we do not know whether or not there is a serious consequence for this.

New meta-analysis study from Bristol, England in 2016 regarding drinking during pregnancy

The closest study that may answer part of the above questions is a metaanalysis from England. It attempted to shed some light on exposure of smaller amounts of alcohol during pregnancy. They examined several studies where the exposure was up to 32 Grams of alcohol per week during pregnancy. This is called a meta-analysis.

Researchers examined several parameters like stillbirth, gestational length and preterm delivery (less than 37 weeks). They also examined other factors, like a small baby for gestational age, low birth weight (less than 2500 g), and features of FAS.

Findings of the Bristol study

Researchers pooled a total of 288, 512 participants from several studies. The low alcohol consumption group (less than 32 grams per week) had 10% preterm deliveries. 8% of the babies were small for their gestational age. The offspring of pregnant ladies who drank up to 32 grams of alcohol per week were compared to abstainers. The alcohol consuming group had babies that on average weighed 13.49 grams less. Low birth weights (less than 2500 grams) were the same in both groups. A large US study showed a 24% risk of placental abruption in the light-drinking group compared to abstainers. FAS symptoms, conduct disorder or hyperactivity syndrome were the same in any of the pooled studies. The outcome between abstainers and light-drinking mothers was the same. No apparent difference could be found between the children of either group.

Common sense about drinking during pregnancy

At this point it is the safest to go by the recommendation of the CDC and all the official medical societies that recommend to not drinking any alcohol 3 months before a planned pregnancy and during the pregnancy. I consider it common sense that you avoid a known nerve toxin like alcohol during pregnancy. The toxic effect of alcohol in a high enough dosage does horrendous damage, as it is obvious with fetal alcohol syndrome. It stunts the baby’s growth and damages the brain. We have also seen that a lower exposure to alcohol still produces fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. It does not make sense to me to gamble, whether a lower concentration of alcohol may be “safe” to the fetus.

Limits of what research to do

Knowing that alcohol is a toxin to nervous tissue demands that no pregnant woman should drink alcoholic beverages at all. It simply is not safe. I suspect that some researcher who must do research at any cost will one day produce that hypothetical study of one drink of alcohol per day during pregnancy. I think it will show that a significant amount of cases have fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. The conclusion will be that it is safer not to drink alcohol during pregnancy.

How Much Drinking During Pregnancy Is Safe?

How Much Drinking During Pregnancy Is Safe?

Conclusion

Sometimes science is going beyond where it should go. In the study analyzed above several studies were pooled as a metaanalysis. There are limitations in terms of reliability of such studies.

But when it comes to testing what smaller amounts of alcohol do to a pregnancy we need to ask a few questions. Are we as a society really willing to risk future humans just to satisfy our curiosity whether or not drinking during pregnancy would be “safe”? Common sense tells us that alcohol as a known neurotoxic substance will be detrimental to a developing brain in a fetus, even in smaller amounts. Also, it is not clear whether ethics committees throughout the US will allow such a claim or will shut it down in the planning stages before it can ever take off. I would guess that it is more likely that any such plans for a trial of that nature will come under the scrutiny of the medical authorities including the CDC, the FDA and the American Medical Association and be shut down fairly quickly, because of the potential damage that could be inflicted onto the fetus.

It is much safer to carry on with the existing laws and recommendations and avoid all alcohol exposure before and during pregnancy.

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