Dec
02
2017

Vitamin K For Bones And Arteries

Vitamin K for bones and arteries is gaining a lot of attention as a valuable supplement. Most of all in the blood vessels, but in addition in the heart, lungs and kidneys the matrix GLA protein is a key substance. Vitamin K2 is crucial for removing calcium from these organs, as matrix GLA protein is carboxylated. Carboxylation of the GLA protein functions much as a broom. This removes all superfluous calcium from blood vessels and organ tissues. If there is a lack of vitamin K2 intake, matrix GLA protein is uncarboxylated, which as a result invites vascular calcification. Essentially vitamin K2 has emerged as an important player in the regulation of bone conditions like osteoporosis, but also in the prevention of hardening of arteries. Vitamin K2 removes calcium from blood vessels and deposits calcium in bone preventing osteoporosis. I will review some key publications, which support this.

Arterial stiffness study in postmenopausal women

Aging blood vessels become stiff from calcification. By removing calcium it seems like the arterial wall becomes more flexible again. Dr. Knapen and colleagues from Maastricht University, The Netherlands followed 244 healthy, postmenopausal women for 3 years in this double blind, placebo-controlled 2015 study.

120 women received 180 micrograms of vitamin K2 (as MK-7) once daily. 124 women received placebo pills. Next researchers checked arterial stiffness through two types of tests. First of all, carotid intima-media thickness was evaluated by echo tracking. In addition aortic stiffness was tested by carotid-femoral and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity. After 3 years there was a significant reduction of uncarboxylated matrix GLA by 50%. This was missing in the placebo group. All of the markers for arterial stiffness showed a reversal improving flexibility above the median. This shows that hardening of arteries in postmenopausal women is reversible with the help of vitamin K2.

Bone metabolism study in Japanese men and women

This 2015 Japanese study investigated what the minimum amount of necessary vitamin K2 would be to improve osteocalcin carboxylation.

First of all, study 1 examined the effect of 0, 50, 100, or 200 micrograms of vitamin K2 (=menaquinone-7) daily. A group of 60 postmenopausal women received vitamin K2 for 4 weeks. Only the 200 microgram per day dosage showed an effect of carboxylating osteocalcin.

Second part of study

Furthermore, study 2 consisted of 120 men and women. Measurements involved the ratio between carboxylated and uncarboxylated osteocalcin to demonstrate the effect of vitamin K2. As a result of study 1 only a placebo group, a 100-microgram and a 200-microgram daily vitamin K2 group was part of the investigation. Both, the 100 microgram and the 200 microgram doses, reduced the circulating uncarboxylated osteocalcin fraction. Hence they concluded that vitamin K-2 effectively keeps the calcium in the bones and prevents osteoporosis. The investigators recommended taking more than 100 micrograms of vitamin K-2 per day to improve osteocalcin carboxylation.

You can find more detail regarding the interaction of calcium, vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 in this link.

Trabecular bone structure preserved in postmenopausal women

148 postmenopausal women were participating for 12 months in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. All these women had osteopenia. All of them received supplements with calcium and vitamin D3. In addition they received 375 micrograms of vitamin K2 or placebo pills. Examination involved tests for bone mineral density with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Furthermore a high-resolution CAT scanner determined the microarchitecture of the tibia bone.

After 3 months the uncarboxylated osteocalcin decreased by 65.6% rather than the placebo group of only 6.4% decrease. The trabecular number, spacing and thickness in the tibial bone were unchanged in the vitamin K2 group. In contrast to that there was a clear deterioration of the bone structure in the placebo group.

Summary of trabecular bone study

The bone density studies showed no detectable difference between the groups. The deterioration of the trabecular microstructure in the placebo group was consistent with expected age-related changes. On the other hand, the vitamin K2 group clearly demonstrated preservation of the trabecular bone structure in the tibial bone.

Vitamin K2 helps to eliminate toxic effects of calcium

This 2015 publication from Krakow, Poland explains rather well how vitamin K2 is important to reduce calcium from blood vessels.

At the same time the article points out that vitamin K2 is important for depositing calcium into bones to prevent osteoporosis. The removal of calcium from blood vessels occurs by carboxylation of matrix GLA protein. This functions like a shield to protect blood vessels from calcium entering into the arterial wall. This way the arteries are probably safe from calcification, and hardening of the arteries cannot take place. On the other hand calcium is binding to the bone. As explained above the hormone osteocalcin is responsible for this.Vitamin K2 is the main player in the process of carboxylization. As a result vitamin K2 makes it happen that calcium travels into the bone, where it belongs.

Rotterdam Study: reduced heart attack rates from vitamin K2

4807 subjects from the Rotterdam Study in the Netherlands were part of a study for considerable time (about 10 years) with no sign of any heart attack in the beginning.

The investigators were interested to correlate the effects of various doses of vitamin K1 and K2. How would this impact the frequency of heart disease, hardening of the aorta and all-cause mortality? Researchers adjusted the data for smoking, age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, education, and dietary factors. Next they compared the middle and upper tertile groups of vitamin K1 and K2 to the lower tertile of vitamin K1 and K2.

Results of Rotterdam Study

Most noteworthy, the relative risk for coronary heart disease was lower for the middle and upper tertile of the vitamin K2 group. They found that the middle tertile vitamin K2 intake lowered heart attacks by 27%. It was especially relevant that the upper tertile of vitamin K2 intake lowered heart attack rates by 57%.

In addition, all-cause mortality also showed a reduction for the middle tertile of vitamin K2 by 9% and for the upper tertile by 26%. Finally, severe aortic calcification was 29% less for the middle tertile of vitamin K2 and even 52% less for the upper tertile. Intake of vitamin K1 (=phylloquinone had no impact on any of the outcomes. The investigators concluded that adequate intake of vitamin K2 (=menaquinone) was crucial for anybody’s health. First of all, vitamin K2 lowers heart attack rates, in addition it reduces hardening of the arteries including the aorta and finally, it lowers all-cause mortality.

Vitamin K For Bones And Arteries

Vitamin K For Bones And Arteries

Conclusion

This review shows evidence that vitamin K2 supplementation is important for the prevention of osteoporosis and heart disease. It prevents heart attacks and hardening of arteries, including the aorta. The dosage necessary to achieve this is only 200 micrograms of vitamin K2 per day. However, in Japan higher doses like 375 micrograms per day are the common protocol for prevention of osteoporosis.

Effect of vitamin K2 for bones and arteries

How does vitamin K2 work? In the blood vessels vitamin K2 carboxylates the matrix GLA protein. Essentially this keeps calcium out of the arterial wall and prevents hardening of the arteries. This reduces heart attacks and significantly lowers mortality from heart attacks as well. The second effect of vitamin K2 is on bones. Vitamin K2 prevents osteoporosis to a large extent. It does so by binding calcium to the bone. The hormone osteocalcin, which is carboxylated by vitamin K2 effectively moves calcium from the bloodstream into the bone and keeps it in the bone. If you take vitamin K for bones and arteries, you double the benefit from this simple vitamin. Remember to take 200 micrograms of vitamin K2 daily. The benefits are certainly remarkable!

 

Nov
18
2017

You May Want To Cut Down Coffee Consumption

Many people drink too much coffee, so you may want to cut down coffee consumption. With all the good news about the health benefits when drinking coffee, some people went too far. They have overdone what was supposed to be good for them. Recently a study came out that tells you how to cut down coffee consumption.

But first I like to review the issue whether to drink caffeinated or decaf coffee. Next I will tell you how you can switch to decaf coffee.

Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee have the same health benefits

  1. Recently a large study showed that coffee, caffeinated or not, has a connection with lower overall mortality.
  2. Coffee has long been a subject of heated discussions. Some praise it, and others condemn it. There are multiple past studies; some showed health benefits, some did not. This is why the Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, MA. did a larger study. The purpose was to re-examine the health benefits for both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee.

Mortality data regarding people who drank decaf coffee or regular coffee

Researchers assessed mortality among 74,890 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS). Another 93,054 women in the NHS 2 study became part of this. And 40,557 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study were also part in this large study. The medium follow-up for all of these three groups was 22.5 years. 19,524 women and 12,432 men died during that time period. Ming Ding is a doctoral student at the Harvard School of Public Health department of nutrition. She was the lead author of this study. She pointed out that in the past there were confounding problems. Many studies had shown that both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption lowered the risk of cardiovascular disease. But the results in many studies were blurred. Studies often did not distinguish between smokers and non-smokers. This meant that the cardiovascular risk from smoking wiped out a beneficial effect from coffee drinking.

Confounding and other factors

Ding’s studies took this into account and also other confounding factors like how much sugary soda pop people were drinking and whether or not they were eating well. In addition they normalized for other factors that could interfere like drinking alcohol and eating red meat. Without normalizing for the factors mentioned above the study results were as follows. Study participants who had less than a cup of coffee and three cups a day had a 5% to 9% lower risk of dying than those who drank no coffee. Those who drank more than three cups a day did not see any benefit.

Dose response curve for regular and decaf coffee

After eliminating all the confounding factors researchers compared the various groups again, and the following linear dose-response curve emerged:

  • Less than 1 cup of coffee per day: 6% lower death rates than non-coffee drinkers.
  • 1 cup to 3 cups of coffee per day: 8% lower death rates.
  • 3 to 5 cups of coffee per day: 15% lower death rates.
  • More than 5 cups of coffee per day: 12% lower death rates.

Coffee consumption reduces diabetes and heart disease

Ming’s study connected with another research paper that had shown that coffee drinkers have a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes and also less heart disease. She found that both, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, reduced the risk of getting diabetes later in life. When asked about what would be responsible for the reduced death rates with coffee consumption, she explained: “There are at least two known chemicals in coffee, namely lignans and chlorogenic acid that could reduce inflammation and help control blood sugar, both of which could help reduce the risk of heart disease”. You may want to cut down coffee consumption because you know decaf coffee does the same as regular coffee.

Other details about the caffeinated/decaf coffee study

Although there seems to be a linear response up to 5 cups of coffee consumption, above 5 cups this linear relationship disappeared. It was not explained whether there was a saturation point, whether there was yet another hidden confounding factor or whether there were detrimental effects on the adrenal glands with too much caffeinated coffee consumption.

Another finding was that it did not matter whether the coffee was regular (caffeinated) coffee or decaffeinated coffee. The results were identical.

Many other studies did not have the large numbers to show whether or not decaffeinated coffee was as effective in preventing heart disease as regular coffee.

Suicide rates and coffee consumption

There was another peculiar finding: suicides were down by 20% to 36%, if a person drank at least one cup of coffee per day. If a person consumed less than 1 cup of coffee per day the suicide rate was 36% higher than the control group with no coffee consumption. This is a rather peculiar finding, particularly for the consumption of less than 1 cup of coffee. Other studies also showed a decrease in suicide rates with coffee consumption.

Although previous studies had shown a reduction in liver and prostate cancer, after the removal of confounding factors this study did not show any effects on cancer causation or cancer death rates with coffee consumption.

Discussion

The Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, MA has excelled in high quality nutritional studies for decades. This study is particularly important, because it is so large, giving it more statistical power. Secondly, the observation time of an average of 22.5 years is longer than most coffee studies in the past. Add to this the removal of the “noise” (called confounding factors) that interfered with the objective of the study, and you end up with a very meaningful result.

Clear results after confounding factors were removed

The important findings were that both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee have the same effect of saving and extending lives. Perhaps you want to drink not more than 5 cups of coffee per day. That lowers your risk of premature death by 15%. It is most likely that it is the effect of lowering the rate of diabetes and heart attack rates that is responsible for the risk reduction. At least this was the opinion of the chief investigator. Cancer rates were not lowered by coffee consumption.

I sleep better when I drink decaffeinated coffee, so for me the notion that decaffeinated coffee and regular coffee have the same effect was important.

Revisit the statement: “you may want to cut down coffee consumption”

Now we know that there is no difference in benefits whether the coffee is caffeinated or not. Those of you who consume 3 to 5 cups of decaf coffee already enjoy a 15% reduction in risk of cardiovascular disease.

Those of you who take the same amount of regular coffee may get into a caffeine dependency problem. Because every time the caffeine stimulation wears off, you yearn for yet another cup of coffee. You need your fix, and this becomes a dependency problem. You have conditioned your body to that regular dose of caffeine, even though it is the bioflavonoids that are reducing mortality while caffeine is neutral.

My experience of coffee withdrawal

When I came across Ding’s research findings I was glad that now there was clarification about whether decaf coffee was as good as regular coffee. The next step for me was to cut out regular coffee and replace it by decaf coffee. Formerly I had been drinking 5 mugs of coffee daily (translated into 500 mg of caffeine daily). When I decided to quit this habit, I figured I should do it cold turkey from one day to the next. To my surprise this was a much bigger deal than I had thought.

Withdrawal symptoms

I craved the next cup of coffee, and I drank a decaf coffee. It did not help: Still, there was this craving for regular coffee! Yawning, restlessness and tiredness were symptoms that followed me all day long. Then there was irritability, a mild headache and almost flu-like symptoms. Eventually I went to sleep and woke up one hour later feeling a bit more energetic. But two hours later I had to lay down again. I was feeling that bushed. The following few days went better. There was more energy. But I still liked a noonday nap of about 1 hour.

Benefits of getting off regular coffee

This was not like me! Normally I have lots of energy and I don’t need naps. It took me 1-½ weeks to get over my 5-cup a day coffee withdrawal. But it was 100% worth it! Since then my energy is back to normal. I don’t have to chase coffee houses on a trip or ensure there is always a cup of regular coffee available for me at home (work does not apply, because I am retired). If I want I can replace my beloved coffee with another fluid. I love lemon juice sweetened with stevia instead of my decaf coffee. It is liberating that I no longer depend on the caffeine. But I still like the flavor of decaf coffee, and there is something enjoyable about the fragrance of freshly brewed coffee. And so I drink 3 to 4 cups of decaf coffee a day.

How to cut down coffee consumption

Here is a 2016 study from the Johns Hopkins University where 34 patients on 600 mg of caffeine per day received a 1-hour lecture about coffee withdrawal followed by a 6-week diary of their coffee consumption. They were asked to reduce their caffeine consumption down to 50 mg by week 6 of the coffee elimination program. Tests followed with salivary caffeine levels 6, 12 and 26 weeks after coffee cessation. There was also a 1-year follow-up telephone conversation. The results were that there was good compliance. Saliva caffeine levels verified this. The diaries over the first 6 weeks showed that the participants had gradually eliminated caffeine consumption. Perhaps this was a more humane way than my “cold-turkey” approach.

You May Want To Cut Down Coffee Consumption

You May Want To Cut Down Coffee Consumption

Conclusion

Many people are sensitive to too much caffeine consumption in coffee and other caffeinated beverages. But since the Harvard study that I mentioned above there is no need to overdose coffee or tea consumption. Decaf coffee has the same effect on lowering death rates by 15%, as does regular coffee. It pays to avoid caffeine, as you will avoid caffeine dependency. Drink decaf coffee instead!

I also discussed that withdrawal from regular coffee can be done more gently over a 6 week period. I did it from one day to the next and had a 1-½ week long withdrawal reaction. Do it slower or faster, whatever works best for you. The end result will be the same. Then enjoy it that you no longer depend on caffeine!

More info: http://www.askdrray.com/coffee-could-be-a-lifesaver/

Nov
11
2017

Avoid High Temperature Cooking

In recent years publications have shown that you need to avoid high temperature cooking. This will prevent diseases, and this will also prevent premature aging. Cooking at high temperatures creates carcinogens and advanced glycemic end products (AGE’s). Both substances are harmful to our health. Carcinogens are mutagens that attack the DNA of your cells which increases a risk of developing cancer. AGE’s crosslink proteins like antibodies, hormones, enzymes, collagen, neurotransmitters and hemoglobin. When crosslinking like this has occurred, cells are not functioning optimally.

In the case of diabetes the hemoglobin, which is expressed as percentage of glycated hemoglobin, is rising. This leads to damage of hemoglobin by AGE’s. Above a certain normal value complications of diabetes occur, like blindness or amputations of limbs because of circulatory problems. Diabetics also can get excruciating pains from damage to nerves (neuropathies) and heart attacks. In the last few years it has become evident that the old “normal” glycated hemoglobin values recommended to patients were too high. This was the reason why complications still occurred when the patients’ hemoglobin A1C values were within the normal range.

New hemoglobin A1C ranges

At the 22nd Annual World Congress on Anti-Aging Medicine In Las Vegas (Dec. 10-14, 2014) Dr. Piliszek stated that the normal range for hemoglobin A1C is skewed in the medical literature. It should be: 3.8% to 4.9%. This is very important to know for diabetics and any caregiver who looks after diabetic patients. If you are satisfied with a hemoglobin A1C of 6.0 as still being “normal”, the diabetic patient has the risk of dying prematurely of a heart attack or a stroke. According to the new guidelines even a patient whose hemoglobin A1C is 5.5 has diabetes with the new guidelines and needs to be treated aggressively to prevent complications that occur due to diabetes. Conventional guidelines would have considered this patient to be normal. With these new guidelines there won’t be complications as long as the hemoglobin A1C stays in this range.

In a way diabetes is a special case of AGE’s accumulation leading to glycosylated hemoglobin. The hemoglobin A1C value measurement indicates how advanced the AGE’s accumulation is.

What can we do to lower our exposure to AGE’s?

Here is a list of more than 500 common foods. Keep in mind that less than about 700-kilo units/serving is a low glycation product, 700 to 5000 is a medium glycation product and above 5000 would be a high glycation product.

You can tell by comparing methods of preparing various meats how different the glycation product is. You want to avoid broiling, also you will want to poach eggs at medium heat or panfry foods at low heat to keep the glycation product of our food in the low to medium range.

Is preparing food in a microwave oven safe?

We have been indoctrinated that microwave cooking would be gentle and harmless to the food. Newer research has shown that this is not the case! Microwaves produce heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This is in addition to advanced glycation end products (AGEs), known as glycotoxins. All of them can damage your cells and can cause cancer. There were many investigations of microwave cooking in Russia and Switzerland that describe the problems.

The result of these studies was that microwaving food produced noxious substances that were carcinogenic, contained free radicals and changed blood composition in the volunteers ingesting microwaved foods. There was a leukocytosis (too many white blood cells); decreased immune cells (lymphocytes) and increased cholesterol levels just from consuming microwaved foods. The researchers concluded that microwaved food contained noxious components to which the body reacted. For years the microwave oven industry and various government agencies in Europe and North America have refuted this kind of information. Nevertheless, many people started to abandon their microwave oven based on this newer research.

Other cooking techniques causing AGE’s

Overcooking foods can also cause massive damage to the genes. Women exposed to AGE’s are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer. Their outlook is much worse than for women without exposure to AGE’s.

High temperature cooking causes inflammation, which in turn stimulates glycation of the body’s proteins. As I mentioned before, broiling, baking, grilling or panfrying at high heat will do exactly that. But broiling, roasting, frying and searing also generate AGE’s. Barbecuing belongs to the high temperature cooking methods as well. Unfortunately many of these methods are common in restaurant cooking. You are much better off to prepare your own meals at home where you have control over how many AGE’s you generate when you prepare your food.

Avoid high temperature cooking with these methods

If you don’t have a slow cooker, now is a good time to get one. The advantage of this method is that you can prepare dinner at breakfast time. If you choose to cook a stew, put your beef or bison in together with onions and vegetables in the morning, and let it cook at low heat. When you come home for dinner in the evening, you can smell when you open the door that dinner is ready. The meat is soft and tasty.

Alternatively, if you prepare meat or poultry, you may want to cook the meat at low heat in the oven until it is through. You can boil eggs or poach them. Cooking salmon or other fish works well with low- heat cooking in the oven. Alternatively steaming produces very good results.

Supplements, if you can’t avoid high temperature cooking

Fortunately for those who depend on restaurant foods, there are supplements that have shown to reduce AGE’s significantly. I am describing them in the following and what studies have shown that they are effective. Also, by reducing sugar and starchy foods, particularly processed foods, you can significantly reduce AGE’s in your diet.

1. Chlorophyllin

Chlorophyllin has been known for many years to be an anti-carcinogenic and antimutagenic. 100 mg taken with the heaviest meal will protect you to a large extent from AGE’s and carcinogens in food that has been cooked too hot.

2. Indole-3-carbinol

Cruciferous vegetables (cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli) contain the substance indole-3-carbinol. In mouse experiments it was suppressing carcinogens by up to 98%. It prevented DNA damage by carcinogens in rats up to 95%.

The dosage for humans is 200 mg twice per day, and it has no side effects.

3. Carnosine

Carnosine consists of two amino acids, L-histidine and beta-alanine. It has anti-AGE’s effects. Because of the carnosine enzyme, which degrades carnosine, it requires a fairly high dose of 500 mg twice per day to get a meaningful blood level.

Diabetics are most in need of protection from AGE’s. Prolonged elevation of blood sugars leads to glycation end products as sugar interacts with protein in the body. Carnosine interferes with this AGE’s formation.

In the past the dosage was too low(only 50 mg per day); newer studies established that for a sustained blood level you need 500 MG twice per day. 

4. Benfotiamine

This is another supplement that is of value in preventing damage from AGE’s.

The interested reader can follow the link and learn more about it.

5. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate

This is a metabolite of vitamin B6. It is also useful to counter AGE’s. Dr. Sahelian is of the opinion that for most patients supplementation with multiple vitamins (which includes vitamin B6) is sufficient to have protection through pyridoxal-5-phosphate as vitamin B6 gets easily metabolized into it.

Avoid High Temperature Cooking

Avoid High Temperature Cooking

Conclusion

Advanced glycemic end products (AGE’s) and mutagens from overheating the food we eat is a significant problem. Conditions like heart attacks, strokes and many cancers can have their root in this. The key is to reduce AGE’s by eating less sugar and starchy foods. A Mediterranean diet is a balanced diet that will help to reduce AGE’s in your diet. Besides that we need to watch that we do not overuse alcohol. It is important that we avoid eating fast foods and restaurant foods. Broiled food, baked items, as well as grilled or pan-fried foods contain AGE’s due to the high heat exposure during . Even microwaving food can produce AGE’s and mutagens in food.

What to do instead

Instead, we need to use a slow cooker, poach eggs at medium heat or panfry food at low heat to keep the glycation products of our food in the low to medium range. Once you see the black char marks on meats or a heavy, dark brown surface, you know, that the exposure to high heat has been too much. Overcooking food presents a problem for your health. If we cannot avoid this exposure, we can resort to several supplements that offer us some relief from AGE’s. It makes sense to use those, if we cannot avoid eating out, and we should take them with the heaviest meal of the day.

Oct
21
2017

Bioidentical Hormone Replacement

Recently Medical News Today published an article on bioidentical hormone replacement in the Sept. 19, 2017 edition.

Although it was partially informative, I felt that there was an underlying bias against the use of bioidentical hormone replacement. The article made it sound as if hormone replacement therapy would not be safe. But the opposite is true with bioidentical hormone replacement.

Why are many women afraid of bioidentical hormone replacement?

At the time when there was a lot of confusion about hormone replacement therapy (HRT) the results of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) made it even more confusing. After all there was one trial to show once and for all that HRT would be beneficial. The expectation was that HRT prevents osteoporosis, heart attacks and breast cancer. But the results were quite different. Instead the study found a 41% increase in strokes, 29% increase in heart attacks, 26% increase in breast cancer, 22% increase in total cardiovascular disease and a doubling in the risk for blood clots.

Missing information about synthetic hormones

What the authors of the study did not explain was the fact that it was the properties of the synthetic hormones, progestin and Premarin were responsible for the negative effects. Had research insisted to perform the study with bioidentical hormones, the results would have been quite the opposite! With bioidentical hormone replacement we see the prevention of heart attacks and clots; cancer rates are lower than controls, and the prevention of osteoporosis is another benefit. The end result is a reduction in mortality rates. But the horrifying results that are due to the use of synthetic hormones and that the WHI warned about linger on in the minds of many women.

The use of bioidentical hormone replacement

Dr. John Lee pointed out in several of his books that the physician should only replace hormone loss with bioidentical hormones. He also pointed out that physicians should only replace those hormones that are at low levels or missing. This means that the woman should have confirmatory blood tests like FSH, LH, blood estrogen and salivary progesterone. If estrogen and progesterone are missing, the physician usually starts the woman on progesterone cream first. After two months, when laboratory tests show a saturation with progesterone , the addition of estrogen can follow, typically as the Bi-Est cream. This is a mix of estriol and estradiol.

Caution to balance against estrogen dominance

Progesterone is started first to balance against the potential cancer-inducing effect of estradiol. With the addition of progesterone a balance is the result, and estrogen will not cause breast cancer. This is also why Bi-Est is used: it is a mix of estriol and estradiol. Estriol is neutral with regard to causing breast cancer. Estradiol is the main natural estrogen in a woman, so some of it is necessary to make the woman feel normal. This is how the body receptors are functioning. But estradiol alone, when not in balance with progesterone, can cause breast cancer and uterine cancer.

The key is that only women who need bioidentical hormones should receive it. There are some women whose blood tests do not show a lack of estrogen, but only a lack of progesterone. These women should receive replacement with bioidentical progesterone to re-establish the hormone balance between estradiol and progesterone.

Safety of bioidentical hormone replacement products

As I have mentioned before, the Women’s Health Initiative in 2002 showed that on Premarin and progestin, two synthetic hormone products women came down with breast cancer, heart attacks, stroke, and thromboembolic events. They were using the synthetic drugs, namely conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate. The reason these women had to suffer these side effects was because their physicians insisted in using “pure hormones that a drug company had manufactured”. But these synthetic hormones were not pure hormones; they were adulterated with side chains so that pharmaceutical companies could patent them. These side chains made the synthetic hormones not fit the body’s hormone receptors. And this is the reason why the synthetic hormones created chaos in form of breast cancer, strokes and heart attacks.

Women’s Health Initiative authors whitewashed study results

Instead of admitting their mistakes, the full truth never became public. Instead the authors of the WHI study stated that it would be necessary to limit hormone replacement in menopause to the minimum amount of synthetic hormones to control symptoms, and their use should not exceed more than 5 years. These authors never distinguished between bioidentical hormones that fit the body’s hormone receptors and the synthetic hormones that irritated or blocked the body’s hormone receptors. There are thousands of women in Europe who have been on bioidentical hormones for decades, and they are doing just fine!

Bioidentical hormones in balance have no side effects

The truth is that bioidentical hormones –as long as they are kept in balance-do not have any side effects. Bioidentical hormones are the same that a woman produces in her ovaries before menopause sets in. The production of her bioidentical hormones kept her healthy. But the treating physician needs to carefully watch the balance of the hormones in the woman who is replaced with bioidentical estrogen and progesterone. This means that she needs to get enough progesterone to counterbalance estrogen stimulation. Hormones are constantly changing and if you don’t measure them, you don’t know what you are dealing with.

Dr. Lee said to measure hormone levels

John Lee showed a long time ago that you should measure hormones and identify those women who are truly hormone deficient. These are the ones who need hormone replacement. However, physicians should use only bioidentical hormones to replace what is missing. And they should also replace only as much as necessary to normalize the levels. This is also the level where postmenopausal symptoms disappear. Dr. Lee noted: “A 10-year French study of HRT using a low-dose estradiol patch plus oral progesterone shows no increased risk of breast cancer, strokes or heart attacks”.

How is bioidentical hormone replacement done?

The best method is usually a bioidentical hormone cream applied to the forearms or to the chest wall once per day. This avoids the first-pass metabolism where the hormones, if absorbed from a pill in the gut have to pass through the liver. Part of the hormones can get metabolized and some of the hormone effect may disappear. By applying bioidentical Bi-Est cream and progesterone cream to the skin, the hormones get directly absorbed into the blood stream and can do their job without interference. The treating physician can prescribe different amounts of the bioidentical hormones depending on saliva tests or blood tests. 1 or 2 months later repeat blood or saliva tests can follow to verify that the amounts of the replacement hormones and their absorption are adequate for the patient’s need.

What are the side effects of bioidentical hormone replacement?

Normally, when estrogen and progesterone are in balance, there should be no side effect. However, in the beginning of replacement therapy sometimes one of the hormones gets too high. If this happens with estrogen replacement, the woman becomes estrogen-dominant. She would experience symptoms of bloating, fatigue, weight gain, depression, headaches, loss of sex drive. She can also develop uterine fibroids, endometriosis and hypothyroidism. It was Dr. John Lee who first described this (Ref.1). There can also be mood swings, craving for sweets, irritability, and sluggishness in the morning. The key is to cut back on the estrogen dosage; alternatively, if progesterone is low in saliva tests, this hormone may need an increase, which would rebalance estrogen. At the end of fine-tuning of bioidentical hormone replacement the woman will feel normal and have no negative side effects, but the process of fine-tuning may take several months.

Difficulties to measure progesterone levels

Dr. David Zava, PhD gave a talk on breast cancer risks. This was a presentation at the 24th Annual World Congress on Anti-Aging Medicine (Dec. 9-11, 2016) in Las Vegas that I attended. Dr. Zava, who runs the ZRT laboratory spent some time to explain how to measure progesterone in a physiological way.

Blood (serum) progesterone levels do not adequately reflect what the hormone tissue level is like in a woman’s breasts. On the other hand saliva hormone levels are giving an accurate account of what breast tissue levels are like.

Progesterone blood levels versus progesterone tissues levels

Dr. Zava gave an example of a woman who received an application of 30 mg of topical progesterone. Next, laboratory tests observed hourly progesterone levels in the serum and in the saliva. The serum progesterone levels remained at around 2 ng/ml, while the saliva progesterone levels peaked 3 to 5 hours after the application. It reached 16 ng/ml in saliva, which also represents the breast tissue progesterone level. Dr. Zava said that the important lesson to learn from this is not to trust blood progesterone levels. Too many physicians fall into this trap and order too much progesterone cream based on a misleading blood test. This leads to overdosing progesterone. With salivary progesterone levels you see the physiological tissue levels, with blood tests you don’t. Dr. Zava emphasized that testing blood or urine as progesterone hormone tests will underestimate bio-potency and lead to overdosing the patient.

Bioidentical Hormone Replacement

Bioidentical Hormone Replacement

Conclusion

Bioidentical hormone replacement, properly done, does not cause cancer, does not cause blood clots and prevents heart attacks and strokes. It also prevents osteoporosis and the associated fractures in older women. The key is that the natural hormones fit the body’s own hormone receptors. The reason why menopausal symptoms appear is that natural hormones (estrogen and progesterone) are missing. With the replacement of the missing hormones in a menopausal woman through bioidentical hormone replacement, the menopausal symptoms disappear. Contrary to the Women’s Health Initiative in 2002 when patients received synthetic hormones, there are no breast cancers, no heart attacks and no strokes with bioidentical hormone replacement. What is even better is that these women will live without all the postmenopausal problems, and their life expectancy will be about 10 years longer than without bioidentical hormone replacement.

References

Ref. 1. Dr. John R. Lee: “What your doctor may not tell you about menopause: the breakthrough book on natural hormone balance”. Sept. 2004.

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Sep
23
2017

Close Diabetes Control Prolongs Life

 

A 20-year study showed that close diabetes control prolongs life. A study divided 160 people with diabetes into two groups. The one group continued to get standard care. Yet the other group received a multi targeted, aggressive treatment protocol. As a result after 20 years the group with the intensive treatment protocol lived 7.9 years longer than the group with the standard treatment.

Dr. Oluf Pederson was the senior investigator of the physician team that followed the diabetes group. He said that they concentrated on a number of known adverse factors and treated them aggressively. These factors were first of all high blood glucose values and clotting risks, also high blood pressure and high triglycerides and in addition cholesterol values. Behavior modification was the therapeutic method to get people with risk factors to exercise more, adopt a healthy diet and stop smoking. Medication in select cases also played a role.

More details about the study

The intervention of intensive treatment lasted 8 years. After that the patients were still in a follow-up study for 13 years. At the beginning of the study patients were on average 55 years old and were borderline obese.

The investigation team screened for complications of diabetes. This included screening for kidney disease, heart disease and blindness. Dr. Joel Zonszein, the director of the New York Clinical Diabetes Center at Montefiore Medical Center said: ”These results are impressive and most patients do not receive the correct treatment, according to national surveys.”

Other studies about diabetes  

Foreign studies

Study from Croatia
  • Another study from Croatia involved 200 patients. It concentrated on patients who did not respond to metformin. Physicians used alternative treatment modalities, and they observed and measured blood sugars and hemoglobin A1C in the following 6 months. The study concluded that those patients who received aggressive treatment of their condition did better than those who did not receive the same vigorous approach.
Study from Japan
  • This Japanese study documented that female patients with type-2 diabetes developed kidney damage earlier than their male counterparts.  Consequently, the investigators pointed out how important it is to treat diabetes aggressively to avoid kidney damage.
Study from Singapore
  • This 2016 study from Singapore analyzed retroactively the impact of diabetes on the long-term survival after coronary bypass grafting (CABG).  5720 consecutive patients had their isolated first CABG surgery between 1982 and 1999. The mean follow-up was 13 years. 34.6% of the patients had diabetes, 51% had high blood pressure and 46.6% had elevated blood lipids. The initial mortality after the CABG surgery was 2.4% in the diabetic group and 1.8% in the non-diabetic group. 20-year survival rates following CABG surgery were 30.9% in diabetics and 49.2% in the non-diabetics, an 18.3% difference. The 20-year freedom from cardiac mortality rates was 56% in diabetics and 68.4% in non-diabetics. Other risk factors that led to cardiac mortality were the following: female gender (1.43-fold risk), diabetes (1.51-fold risk), previous heart attack (1.54-fold risk) and a low left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 35% (2.6-fold risk). The conclusion from this study was that long-term survival in diabetics following CABG surgery was much lower than that of non-diabetic controls. Hence the key to improving long-term survival for diabetics is to treat comorbidities like high blood pressure and elevated lipids aggressively as well as getting blood sugars and hemoglobin A1C values under control.

US studies

  • In this US study 558 youth (age less than 21) between February 2012 to July 2015 received follow-up. Between 40% and 50% of these diabetics needed insulin to improve their diabetes. Unfortunately their diabetes showed poor control, as their high hemoglobin A1C values indicated. Median HbA1C was 6.7%, 8.5%, 9.6%, and 9.7% in those with disease duration less than 1 year, 1-2 years, 2-3 years and less than 4  In other words, the longer the young patients had diabetes, the less seriously they took their treatment. Only 33% treated their high blood pressure and only 11% their elevated blood lipids. Microalbuminuria, an indicator of diabetic kidney disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were present in 5% to 6% of these young diabetic patients. The authors came to the conclusion that there were serious gaps in treating these young diabetics. Further follow-up data of the same group of patients in the coming years will provide further data. In conclusion, the new hemoglobin A1C ranges of 3.8% to 4.9% as the new normal range explains why these youths who do not treat their diabetes properly are at high risk to develop complications from their poorly controlled diabetes.
Heart attacks and erectile dysfunction
  • Heart attacks are more common among patients with uncontrolled diabetes. This US study classified diabetics according to the tightness of their diabetes control. Researchers found examining 606 men and 606 women with diabetes that they could reduce their risk of a heart attack, if they controlled smoking, glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1C), systolic blood pressure, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The control of all these risk factors could contribute to the prevention of heart attacks. 35% of men and 45% of women could prevent having a heart attack. A laxer control still would prevent 36% of heart attacks in men and 38% in women. A very aggressive diabetes control could prevent 51% of heart attacks in men and 61% in women. Most noteworthy: close diabetes control prolongs life.
  • Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a big problem among diabetic men. This study from Seattle shows the investigation of 136, 306 men with erectile dysfunction. 19, 236 of these men had diabetes prior to their ED problem. Over a two-year observation period diabetic men had much worse ED problems. As a result they needed to receive secondary line treatments  like penile suppositories or injectables. Others needed tertiary treatments like penile prostheses. In those whose diabetes control was good, oral agents as first-line therapies were usually sufficient.
More studies about risks and benefits of lifestyle
  • Middle-aged women with diabetes have a 4- to 5-fold higher risk for developing heart attacks while men do not show such a higher risk. It is probably particularly important for women to control diabetes when they are diagnosed with it to reduce the risk of coming down with a heart attack.
  • In 2011 Taylor from Newcastle University showed in a group of diabetes patients that he could cure diabetes permanently with an extremely low calorie diet. The trial was simple: he took overweight or obese patients with diabetes and put them on a starvation diet of 600-700 calories per day for 8 weeks. Consequently 43% of diabetic patients received a permanent cure of their diabetes. More info: http://nethealthbook.com/news/cure-diabetes-permanently/

 

Close Diabetes Control Prolongs Life

Close Diabetes Control Prolongs Life

Conclusion

The new hemoglobin A1C ranges that are desirable are between 3.8% to 4.9%. When diabetics bring their hemoglobin A1C level into this range, they do not get complications from their previously poorly controlled diabetes. Close diabetes control prolongs life. But as can be seen from a brief review of the literature physicians tend to be lax, patients are lax, and diabetes is often not well controlled. This leads to erectile dysfunction in males, to heart attacks and kidney failure in both sexes. Blindness and painful diabetic neuropathy are also common complications of poorly controlled diabetes. Amputations from clogged arteries are also among the complications. “Close diabetes control prolongs life” is the new mantra that everybody with diabetes needs to follow.

Lifestyle changes control diabetes and prolong life

As stated above Dr. Taylor from Great Britain has shown that a brief 600 to 700 calorie diet can cure 43% of diabetic patients permanently. Quit smoking, bring the glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1C) into the normal range, control your systolic blood pressure as well as your total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Do all these things, exercise regularly, and your diabetes will be well controlled. Remember: close diabetes control prolongs life!

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Sep
09
2017

Young Heart Stem Cells Can Cure Old Hearts

Young heart stem cells can cure old hearts in rats. This is what research at the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute in Los Angeles found. You may not be that impressed, because this talks about rats and not humans. But this is a brand-new concept, so of course research of animal experiments is first.

The heart experiment

Dr. Eduardo Marbán, MD, PhD, is the research director of the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute. His idea was to take cardiac stem cells (called cardiosphere-derived cells) from hearts of newborn rats. He injected them into 22 months old rats. The human equivalent for 22 months old rats are older people with older hearts. Within one months of the stem cells’ injections the older rats had normal functioning hearts. Their telomeres were also normal. Telomeres are the caps of the chromosomes of the heart cells. The researchers were astonished to find that the previously short telomeres had become longer. This happened within only one month of the stem cell injections. To Marbán’s surprise the older rats also grew hair faster and gained 20% of their previous exercise tolerance limit. In other words, the injection of heart stem cells had rejuvenated the old rats.

Dr. Marbán has previously shown that exosomes play an important role with stem cell regeneration of old heart cells. These particles from the stem cell donor contain RNA and other growth factors.

Overview of how stem cells can reverse heart failure

Cardiovascular disease includes high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, stroke and congestive heart failure. About 2600 Americans die from cardiovascular disease each day in the US. This is roughly one death every 34 seconds. With old age, if a heart attack does not kill you, congestive heart failure will. With heart failure your heart ceases to pump enough blood through your system. Nutrients and oxygen need to reach all of our cells or it means death for the patient. With the knowledge of this serious background, stem cells have come into the focus in an attempt to combat congestive heart failure.

Animal experiments with stem cells in mice, rats and pigs have shown some progress in restoring better heart function. Researchers used different sources of stem cells, like cardiac stem cells that reside in the heart muscle itself. They also used other stem cell sources. Among these were myoblasts (from muscle), mesenchymal stem cells (from fat tissue) and bone marrow stem cells. Several smaller human trials showed that improvement of heart function was possible following a heart attack. In the procedure the surgeon opened coronary arteries and injected stem cells into the affected damaged heart muscle. How can we assess the result of a successful stem cell treatment? By measuring the left ventricular ejection fraction. This means that the heart can deliver a larger volume of blood every minute. The heart pumps more blood from the left ventricle with each heartbeat than before the treatment.

Other experiments that rejuvenate tissues of older animals

Another line of experiments in this paper shows that certain growth factors are necessary to activate stem cells.

  1. One experiment from the 1950’s describes the stitching together of the skin on their flanks joined an old and a young rat. After this procedure the blood vessels grew and joined the two animals circulatory systems. The older animals knee cartilage damage was no longer there, as the cells from the young animals’ blood had healed the damage.
  2. Research had no knowledge of this fact at that time. But another research group in the 2000’s repeated the experiment and could prove that the stem cells of the young animals activated the growth factors in the old animals.
  3. In 2004 Dr. Rando noted that muscle cells of aging mice were aging because of a lack of stimulation of the local skeletal muscle stem cells. These are satellite cells. Experiments similar to the rat experiment showed that there were factors in the blood of young mice that could re-activate stem cells in the muscles of old mice. Agility and movement of the older mice improved. The improvement in the older mice with knee arthritis disappearing and liver cells rejuvenating was astounding.

More evidence that rejuvenation of heart cells is possible

  1. Amy J. Wagers, a former colleague of Dr. Rando carried on experiments with respect to rejuvenation of hearts in mice. She and her colleagues found what stimulated the hearts of old mice. It was a protein called GDF11 (from young mice).  This 2016 publication describes the action of GDF11.
  2. A 2014 paper describes that GDF11 was able to restore aging muscles to a youthful state. But the researchers were also able to rejuvenate stem cell function in general with GDF11.
  3. Another paper describes that blood from young mice stimulates the brain of older animals to achieve rejuvenation. It is the protein of the young stem cells (called GDF11) and possibly other growth factors to bring about this rejuvenation. It works not only on heart cells, but also on hippocampus tissue in dementia models. This may be important in humans for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

“We can turn back the clock instead of slowing the clock down.” Dr. Toren Finkel said. He is the director of the Center for Molecular Medicine at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. He went on to say: “That’s a nice thought, if it pans out.” But others who caution that overstimulation of stem cells could cause cancers say: “It is quite possible that it will dramatically increase the incidence of cancer,” Dr. Irina M. Conboy said, a professor of bioengineering at the University of California, Berkeley. “You have to be careful about overselling it.”

Degenerative changes in humans responding to stem cells

Many degenerative changes in humans respond to stem cell treatments. Are there stem cells present in degenerative tissue in humans similar to the animal experiments described above? Are the stem cells merely providing growth factors so the dormant stem cells jump into action and regenerate? Could it be that in future therapists could give a certain growth factor mix  intravenously to a patient, and the same effect as stem cell injections would be posssible? These are all unanswered questions, but research in the next decade should answer at least some of those questions.

Growth hormone improving heart function in heart failure patients

In 2008 a metaanalysis of human studies of congestive heart failure and treatment with human growth hormone (HGH) injections was a research topic. It showed an average increase of the ejection fraction by 4.3%. There were also increased cardiac output, decreased systemic vascular resistance and improved hemodynamic effects. The question is whether the effect is a direct effect on the heart muscle cells by HGH or whether HGH was recruiting dormant heart muscle stem cells. This is not clear at this point.

Young Heart Stem Cells Can Cure Old Hearts

Young Heart Stem Cells Can Cure Old Hearts

Conclusion

We have entered an exciting period of medical research. Although there is only a record of many animal experiments, there is overwhelming evidence that the same principles are true in humans. Many stem cell protocols for humans have already seen use for various applications. But stem cell treatments for heart disease are still in their early stages. As it becomes obvious from my review of this topic, some patients who were part of clinical trials have already experienced positive results. Congestive heart failure or poor pump performance following a heart attack have improved following various stem cell procedures. In the next few years there likely will be a proliferation of treatment options for patients. Although some critics have pointed out a possibility of cancer developing as a side effect of stem cell treatment, no evidence is noticeable at this point.

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Sep
02
2017

Resveratrol Effective In Humans

Resveratrol has been labeled a powerful antioxidant; but is resveratrol effective in humans?

  1. Quack watch says: don’t buy into the hype that resveratrol is effective in humans.
  2. WebMD claims that there would not be enough medical evidence to say that the average person should supplement with resveratrol to receive benefits.

Despite these recommendations the following evidence supports that resveratrol is indeed effective in humans.

Resveratrol effective in humans: high blood pressure patients

A 2017 study of high blood pressure patients examined resveratrol supplementation with two groups, 46 stage 1 hypertension patients and 51 stage 2 hypertension patients. Stage I hypertension had a systolic blood pressure of 140–159 mmHg and a diastolic blood pressure of 90–99 mmHg. Stage 2 hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure of 160–179 mmHg and a diastolic blood pressure of 100–109 mmHg. Each subgroup was divided into two groups, one receiving regular antihypertensive medication, and the other group receiving regular antihypertensive medication plus Evelor. Evelor is a micronized formulation of resveratrol. The trial lasted two years. The purpose of the trial was to determine the effect of resveratrol, which was added to the regular antihypertensive medication (or not) to see whether it had blood pressure lowering effects. The interesting result showed that the resveratrol addition was sufficient to bring the blood pressure down to normal levels with only one antihypertensive drug. The control group without resveratrol needed two or three drugs to get the blood pressure under control. In addition, liver function tests showed that resveratrol normalized negative side effects of the antihypertensive drug on the liver. Both liver enzymes, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (Gamma-GT) were normal in the group where resveratrol had been added.

Resveratrol effective in humans: diabetes patients

Resveratrol helps diabetes patients. Resveratrol, the bioflavonoid from red  wine is a powerful anti-inflammatory. This antioxidant has several other effects, which make it challenging to measure each effect by itself. This group of investigators managed to simultaneously measure these effects. They found that resveratrol lowered the C-reactive protein by 26% and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by 19.8%. Resveratrol also decreased fasting blood sugar and insulin; in addition it reduced hemoglobin A1C and insulin resistance. The recommended daily dose of resveratrol was 1000 to 5000 mg.

Resveratrol effective in humans: improves bone density

Resveratrol improves bone density in men: 66 middle-aged obese men with an average age of 49.3 years and a mean body mass index of 33.7 were recruited for this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. The purpose was to study whether there would be changes in bone turnover markers (LDH, an enzyme involved in bone turnover), but also whether bone mineral density (BMD) would increase. Resveratrol was given to a high group (1000 mg per day), a low group (150 mg) and a placebo (fake pills) were given to the third group. The end point was an elevation of the bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP). This was measured in the beginning of the study and at 4, 8 and 16 weeks. The high group of resveratrol had a 16% increase of the BAP throughout the study and a 2.6% in lumbar spine bone density (measured by a trabecular volumetric method). The low resveratrol group showed no bone restoring effect. MJ Ornstrup, MD, the lead investigator said that this was the first time that a clinical team has proven that resveratrol can potentially be used as an anti-osteoporosis drug in humans. She added that resveratrol appears to stimulate bone-forming cells within the body.

Resveratrol effective in humans: anti-aging effects

The Nurses’ Health Study showed that both a Mediterranean diet and resveratrol can elongate telomeres.

The fact that you can have a longer life with a Mediterranean diet is known for some time. But now a study has shown that the reason for a longer life is the fact that telomeres get elongated from the Mediterranean diet. Telomeres are the caps at the end of chromosomes, and they get shorter with each cell division. This is the normal aging process.

The finding of elongated telomeres comes from the ongoing Nurses’ Health Study that started enrolling subjects in 1976. At that time 121 700 nurses from 11states enrolled in the study. In 1980 diet sheets were used to determine who was adhering to a Mediterranean diet. 4676 middle-aged participants were identified to qualify for this study. This diet consists of a combination of vegetables, legumes, fruits, nuts, grains and olive oil. Fish and lean meats were also consumed. The control group followed a regular diet. Between 1989 and 1990 blood tests were obtained to measure telomere length in white blood cells. It is known that smoking, stress and inflammation shortens telomeres. The lead author Marta Crous-Bou stated that overall healthy eating was associated with longer telomeres compared to the control group. But the strongest association was found in women who adhered to the Mediterranean diet when compared to the controls. For the best diet adherence score there was a 4.5 year longer life expectancy due to slowed telomere shortening.

Longer telomeres have been found to be associated with the lowest risk to develop chronic diseases and the highest probability of an increased life span. I have reviewed the importance of lifestyle factors in this blog where I pointed out that Dr. Chang found a whole host of factors that can elongate telomeres by stimulating telomerase. It has been shown in humans that increased physical activity elongated telomeres. So did vitamin C, E and vitamin D3 supplementation, resveratrol, a Mediterranean diet and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. In addition higher fiber intake, bioidentical estrogen and progesterone replacement in aging women and testosterone in aging men, as well as relaxation techniques like yoga and meditation are also elongating telomeres.

Aging is due to shortening of telomeres. Elongation of telomeres by resveratrol leads to prolonged life (or anti-aging).

Resveratrol effective in humans: resveratrol and cancer

As this overview shows, it seems that several mechanisms of action give resveratrol the power to be an anticancer agent. Resveratrol is anti-proliferative and has anti-angiogenesis mechanisms. In addition resveratrol stimulates apoptosis, which is programmed cell death. All these actions together help resveratrol to have anticancer properties. Resveratrol can also be used in combination with other cancer treatments, which improves survival figures. As the link above explains, more cancer clinical trials with a variety of cancers and larger patient numbers are required, but many smaller clinical trials have already been very successful showing efficacy of resveratrol as a chemotherapeutic agent.

In this 2015 publication about malignancies and resveratrol an overview is given about the use of resveratrol and cancer treatment. It summarizes that the development of cancer is a multifactorial process that involves the 3 stages of initiation, promotion and progression. One of the cancer promoting factors is chronic inflammation. Resveratrol has been shown to be anti-inflammatory. At this point it is not clear how the animal experiments will translate into the human situation. More clinical observations are necessary.

Resveratrol effective in humans: cardiovascular disease

Resveratrol has beneficial effects on preventing hardening of the arteries, diabetes, various cancers and inflammatory conditions like Crohn’s disease and arthritis. As this link explains resveratrol also stimulates the antiaging gene SIRT1 by 13-fold. This confirms the anti-aging effect of resveratrol. This 2012 study has also confirmed that resveratrol from red wine is what is responsible for the “French paradox” (longer life expectancy despite high saturated fat intake).

Resveratrol effective in humans: polycystic ovarian syndrome 

Polycystic ovarian syndrome could be significantly healed with resveratrol in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. It involved 30 subjects who completed the trial. 1500 mg of resveratrol or placebo were administered daily for 3 months. Serum total testosterone was decreased by 23.1% at the end of 3 months in the experimental group versus the placebo group. There was also a decrease of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate of 22.2%. Fasting insulin level was reduced by 31.8%. At the same time insulin sensitivity was increased by 66.3%. The authors concluded that resveratrol had significantly reduced ovarian and adrenal gland male hormones (androgens). This may be in part from the drop in insulin levels and the increase of insulin sensitivity.

Resveratrol effective in humans: anti-arteriosclerotic effects in diabetics

A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was done on 50 diabetics. The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) was used to determine arterial stiffness. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of resveratrol on the stiffness of arteries in a group of diabetics and compare this to a placebo. Diabetics are known to have premature hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerotic changes). After 12 weeks of taking 100 mg of resveratrol per day there was a significant reduction in arterial stiffness in the experimental group, but not in the placebo group. Blood pressure also decreased by 5 mm mercury (systolic) in the experimental group.

Resveratrol effective in humans: ulcerative colitis patients

56 patients with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis received 500 mg of resveratrol or placebo and were observed for 6 weeks. This was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Bowel disease questionnaires were used to assess the bowel disease activity before and after the treatment. The resveratrol group decreased the disease activity significantly, but it also increased their quality of life. Blood tests showed that this improvement occurred as a result of reducing oxidative stress by resveratrol.

Resveratrol effective in humans: Alzheimer’s disease prevention

Here is a study where 52 Alzheimer’s patients were divided into two groups; one group was given 200 mg of resveratrol for a number of weeks, the other group placebo pills. There was a significant improvement in memory tests in the resveratrol group and functional MRI scans showed better functional connectivity in the hippocampi of the subjects. It is known that the hippocampus is the seat for short-term memory, which is lost in Alzheimer’s patients.

Resveratrol Effective In Humans

Resveratrol Effective In Humans

Conclusion

Resveratrol has a long history of showing evidence of improving health. It does so by countering oxidation of LDL cholesterol, which lessens hardening of arteries. This prevents heart attacks and strokes. Resveratrol is also a powerful anti-inflammatory, which helps patients with diabetes, with Crohn’s disease and arthritis. There is even a cancer preventing effect of resveratrol because of anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenesis effects as well as stimulating apoptosis. Because of these combined anticancer properties resveratrol is a chemotherapeutic agent that can be combined with conventional anticancer drugs.

There are enough randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials in humans to show that resveratrol is effective in preventing and treating several disease conditions. The medical establishment claims that there would not be enough medical evidence to say that the average person should supplement with resveratrol to receive health benefits. After my review outlined above I come to the opposite conclusion. It is quite clear that resveratrol has several important healing properties. It can improve diabetes; prevent hardening of arteries, lower blood pressure, attack osteoporosis and prevent Alzheimer’s disease. I have been taking 500 mg of resveratrol daily for years. It has not harmed me.

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Aug
05
2017

Death From Heartburn Drugs

A study was recently published showing that death from heartburn drugs can come early, when compared to controls. The study was published in June 2017 in the online British Medical Journal Open. The researchers were located at the Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA.

349, 312 US veterans on proton pump inhibitors (PPI) were compared to an equal amount of veterans on conventional H2 blockers. Over a follow-up period of 5.71 years there was an increased risk of death of 25% when patients took PPI drugs. It did not matter to what the PPI group was compared, there were always more deaths in the PPI group compared to other control groups.

Causes of death

According to the senior author, Dr. Ziyad Al-Aly many deaths were due to kidney disease, dementia, fractures, pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infections and cardiovascular disease. Out of 500 patients who took the PPI drug there was one death within one year. But over the years the deaths increased. Dr. Al-Aly thinks that the PPI drug is interfering in some way with the genetic expression of some genes and suppressing others. These genetic differences may explain the early deaths.

As this was a retrospective study, it can only show an association of PPI drugs with earlier deaths, but this does not prove causation. It would require a prospective random study to prove causation.

Other studies regarding the risk of PPI drugs

  1. An Icelandic study from May 2017 showed that there was a 30% increased risk of fractures in males and females following PPI drugs when observed over 10 years. Opiates were associated with an almost 50% risk, sedatives with a 40% risk of increased fractures. Control groups of NSAIDs, statins and beta-blockers showed no increased fracture risk, nor did histamine H2-antagonists.
  1. An article from March 2017 is a critical review of the safety of PPI drugs. It notices that with long-term use there are adverse effects like fractures of the long bones, enteric infections and hypomagnesemia. PPI’s can increase the risk for heart attacks and can cause kidney disease and dementia. One of the problems is that gastroesophageal reflux usually dictates the long term use of anti acid drugs like PPI’s, but the longer patients are taking these drugs, the higher the death rate and side-effect rate. The physician should only use PPI drugs initially and after a few weeks switch to the less potent histamine H2-antagonists (like ranitidine).
  2. A Danish study from April 2017 noted an increased risk for listeriosis in patients who were on PPI drugs. Over 5 years there was a 2.81-fold higher risk of developing listeriosis in patients on PPI’s compared to a control group. If patients were on corticosteroids and a PPI the risk was even higher, namely 4.61-fold increase to develop listeriosis. In contrast, the use of histamine H2-antagonists was associated with a risk of only 1.82-fold of developing listeriosis.
  1. In a Dec. 2016 study from Dublin, Ireland patients older than 65 were examined with regard to their PPI drug use. Data was compiled for 1997 and for 2012. It was noted that the maximal PPI dose for long-term use was prescribed to 0.8% of individuals in 1997 and to 23.6% in 2012. The risk of getting high dose PPI drugs prescribed in 2012 was 6.3-fold compared to 1997. Examination of the health records showed that the indication for prescribing PPI drugs was not associated with significant gastrointestinal bleeding risk factors. The study concluded that there was definitely room for improving prescribing habits.
  1. This January 2016 paper describes the standard treatment of H. pylori and gastric and duodenal ulcer treatment, which involves the triple therapy consisting of a PPI and two antibiotics. It pointed out that this treatment protocol “improves healing and prevents complications and recurrences”.
  2. A paper from Leipzig, Germany dated July 2016 reviews the usage of PPIs. It mentions that there has been a significant increase of prescriptions in the past 25 years. Patients on PPI’ are at a greater risk for fractures. There is also a risk of low B12 levels from malabsorption of B12. This should be checked from time to time, and if necessary B12 injections should be given.
  3. A Canadian study from May 2015 found that Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) were linked to chronic antibiotic use or to prolonged use of high doses of PPI drugs. There was a 1.5-fold risk of recurrent CDI in patients older than 75 years who were taking PPI drugs continuously. There was a 1.3-fold recurrence of CDI after antibiotic re-exposure.

Alternative remedies for heartburn

  • Dr. Weil recommends the use of deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL) for heartburn or early ulcers.
  • Here is a clinical study with 56 patients with duodenal and gastric ulcers that was published in 1968. It could be shown both radiographically as well as clinically that the ulcers healed and that stomach spasms subsided with DGL treatment. At that time it was not known that DGL had antibacterial effects and that often chronic heartburn, stomach and duodenal ulcers can be made chronic by H. pylori infections that are simultaneously present.
  • A December 2016 study showed that probiotics could be a valuable adjunct in triple therapy for H. pylori infection. The study also points out that H. pylori is present in about 50% of the world’s population.

Antibacterial effects of DGL

  • A paper of December of 2012 shows that an important tooth decay bacterium responds to DGL.
  • In a 1989 study 20 patients with aphthous mouth ulcers were followed. DGL mouthwash led to a 50 to 75% improvement in 15 patients within one day of treatment and by the 3rd day there was complete resolution.
  • Here is a suggestion of a four-step approach against H. pylori.
  • DGL has been shown to be useful in gut regeneration in patients with Clostridium difficile infection.

Discussion

I started with a review of a recent paper that pointed out the side effects of PPI drugs. PPI’s are used for acid reflux disease, stomach and duodenal ulcers, either alone or as part of the triple therapy. Because many of these problems are associated with a chronic infection of H. pylori, I reviewed the literature surrounding deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL), a natural antacid remedy. It turns out that DGL can be quite useful either as a parallel treatment or instead of the triple therapy.

The problem over the past 25 years is that physicians have been treating acid problems with higher and higher doses of PPI’s. They are also using ASA prophylaxis against heart attacks and strokes more often. This has caused gastric erosions that are bleeding, which in turn caused physicians to prescribe more PPI’s. The side effects of PPI’s can be viewed as iatrogenic (doctor- induced) disease. This is an artificial disease that occurs from the side effects of overprescribed medicine. PPI’s are a very useful short-term anti-acid medication. But this medication should not be used for more than 4 to 8 weeks. But as patients receive years and years of this medication, serious problems like heart attacks, fractures, kidney disease, dementia, and pneumonia as well as Clostridium difficile infections become the consequence. Overall there was an increase of the death rate of 25%.

It sounds quite reasonable that doctors should return to a more conservative approach as the FDA has suggested. Alternative natural methods including DGL and probiotics can also be utilized.

Death From Heartburn Drugs

Death From Heartburn Drugs

Conclusion

A recent study from the online British Medical Journal Open has pointed out a high death rate among long-term proton pump inhibitor (PPI) drug users. These drugs are used to suppress acid formation in the stomach. They are helpful, if there are significant gastrointestinal bleeding risk factors present. But prolonged use of PPIs causes severe side effects as described, including a chronic persistent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) of the gut that can become resistant to antibiotic therapy. In cases of recurrent CDI one important step is to discontinue PPIs. The physician should consider switching to one of the conventional histamine H2-antagonist drugs (like ranitidine). Overusing PPIs in an older population is not responsible, as this leads to disease that is caused by a physician! There is no need for this to happen. The prescribing physician has to exercise caution and restraint and the patients, and their loved ones need to be aware of multidrug interactions. PPIs belong to the drugs that are eliminated in the liver through the cytochrome P450 enzyme system (CYP2C19). But this enzyme system interfering with the drug elimination process may also eliminate other drugs taken by the patient. The end results can be toxic drug levels of PPIs. It can potentiate the side effects and become responsible for the 25% increased risk of death when the patient takes PPI drugs chronically. Even though PPIs are the newer medication, newer does not always mean better.

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Jul
29
2017

Some Drink Milk, Others Are Lactose Intolerant

Some drink milk, others are lactose intolerant; this is the fact about drinking milk.

For a long time the dairy marketing board advertised with the slogan: “Got milk?”. But dairy milk consumption has declined over the past decades.

Why this is has been reviewed in this article. I like to review the problem of lactose intolerance, milk as a source of calcium to prevent osteoporosis and offer alternatives to milk consumption.

Lactose intolerance

Milk cows have been around in Europe for about 6000 years. But not everybody can tolerate milk products. Most of the Europeans, North Americans and Australians have adjusted the digestive enzymes in their duodenum to produce enzymes, called lactase that digest milk sugar (lactose) into glucose and galactose. But up to 75% of the world population (Africa, South America, Asia) is lactase deficient; they cannot tolerate dairy products. They get abdominal cramping, intestinal gas, bloating, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting from drinking a glass of dairy milk. This link explains why goat milk is better than cow’s milk for those who cannot tolerate cow’s milk.

It is also interesting that many people who are lactase deficient can tolerate cheeses, yogurt and other fermented milk products as the fermenting bacteria have digested the lactose.

Other problems with dairy products

Problems with mass production of dairy items are the following:

  • Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO) are responsible for the majority of milk products on grocery market shelves. This means that the animals are fed unnatural corn, which leads to deficiencies and omega-6 fatty acids in the milk products.
  • Antibiotics are given to prevent infections among the herds of animals.
  • Bovine growth hormone (bST, bovine somatotropin) is administered to stimulate more milk production. The antibiotics lead to superbugs in humans, the bST may be causing autoimmune diseases and breast cancer in humans. The healthiest milk is milk from grass-fed cows. It is high in omega-3 fatty acids. All of the milk products derived from this type of milk are also healthy.

Milk as a source of calcium

One key advertising slogan of the dairy industry used to be that milk would be such a good source of calcium, which would prevent osteoporosis. But milk also has a lot of animal protein in it, which acidifies blood. This means that the kidneys use calcium to neutralize acidic blood and excrete calcium. The net result is that there is more calcium leaving the body as some of the calcium from the bone is also used to keep the balance between acidity and alkalinity.

This 12 year long Harvard Nurses’ Health Study involving 77, 761 women between the ages of 34 to 59 showed that a higher consumption of milk did not protect against hip and wrist fractures.

The myth that full fat milk causes heart attacks and strokes

There is another myth floating around, namely that full fat milk would be bad for the heart because of increased saturated fatty acids. But an Australian study showed that full fat milk is healthier for you than milk with less fat.

After 14.4 years of follow-up the group that consumed the most milk compared to the lowest fat intake group had a 69% lower death rate from cardiovascular disease!

A 2016 study showed that consumption of plain yogurt was associated with better health outcomes on the long term. Be more concerned about the sugar content than the fat content of yogurt!

Prevention of osteoporosis

Too many years have been wasted to sell the false concept of increasing milk consumption (“Got milk?”) for increased calcium intake and possible osteoporosis prevention. It was sold like a mantra: Milk-calcium-osteoporosis prevention. Now we know the real truth behind the false advertising mantra: milk provides protein and calcium, but calcium is poorly absorbed and the acidified blood is alkalinized through calcium from milk and from the bone being excreted into the urine. The end result is a net loss of calcium from the bone, as it is more important to the body to keep the blood’s acid/base stable than to increase the calcium level in the bone. Sadly all the high consumers of milk from the Harvard Nurses’ Health Study ended up having fractures from osteoporotic bones.

Prevention of osteoporosis requires intake of vitamin D3, vitamin K2 and calcium (supplement or diet) as I have reviewed in this blog. In addition regular exercise is also very beneficial as is bioidentical sex-hormone replacement. It is interesting that a large clinical trial that I mentioned in this blog showed after 7 years that there were 35% to 38% less fractures of the hip than in the placebo group. Vitamin K2 is essential to keep calcium in the bones and to keep calcium out of the blood vessel walls. Vitamin D3 is important for calcium absorption through the gut wall and to deposit calcium into bone. Without all of these ingredients it is not possible to prevent osteoporosis.

Alternatives to milk consumption

  1. One obvious step is to replace cow’s milk by goat milk. As you can see from this link, there are many advantages to goat milk. What I find important is the fact that those with lactase deficiency often can tolerate goat milk while they would otherwise react to cow’s milk. There are also many goat milk products like cheese and yogurt, all of which are very healthy. They do not contain any antibiotics or bovine growth hormone (bST), which is only used in cows. Goat milk products are also an excellent source of protein.
  2. You can eat a more vegetable-based diet. A lot of vegetables and fruit have calcium and protein in them.
  3. You can consume almond milk instead of cow’s milk. The downside to know is the fact that almond milk is not a significant source of protein. It has the advantage of being slightly alkaline; this will ensure that the calcium absorbed in the gut will reach the bones as long as you also supplement with vitamin D3 and vitamin K2. The many “fake milk” products such as rice milk, coconut milk and hemp milk are also poor protein sources. The only product higher in protein is soymilk. But soy has its own problems: over 90 % of the crop in North America is genetically engineered, and soy is a known allergen. As of recent, another product based on pea protein is available, and the protein content is excellent, so it is worth looking for it (It is called “Ripple”).
Some Drink Milk, Others Are Lactose Intolerant

Some Drink Milk, Others Are Lactose Intolerant

Conclusion

Drinking milk as a source of protein and calcium has become an obsession a few decades back. In the meantime it turned out that drinking milk tips the acid-base balance in the direction of acidity. This causes osteoporosis, as the kidneys excrete all of the calcium from milk that is absorbed. On top of that even more calcium is taken out from bones to recalibrate the acid-base balance.

Up to 75% of the world population is lactose intolerant. They get sick from drinking cow’s milk. But they usually tolerate goat milk quite well. Considering the fact that antibiotics are used in cow milk production and recombinant bovine growth hormone as well, I have joined the crowd that prefers goat milk instead of cow’s milk. I take the supplements I mentioned for bone maintenance (vitamin D3 and K2) and I get lots of calcium also from vegetables and salads. I have no lactose intolerance, but that’s my take on milk.

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Jul
01
2017

Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs)

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) form when food is cooked at high temperatures. Sugar molecules react with proteins crosslinking them and changing how they function. It prevents proteins from doing their job. Glycation also causes inflammation, which damages mitochondria, the power packages inside cells that provide the body with energy. Overall AGEs lead to premature aging, which comes from the toxic protein reactions. Advanced glycation end products accumulate as glycated proteins in the tissues of the body. This leads to mitochondrial dysfunction.

Effect of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on the body

The following tissues are frequently affected by the toxic effect of AGEs.

  • The accumulation of AGEs can cause kidney disease and kidney failure (renal failure). In this case the kidneys no longer filter the blood to excrete waste. Hemodialysis may be required.
  • Joint cartilage is damaged by AGEs so it can no longer handle stress and joint stiffness sets in. AGEs are now recognized as a major cause of osteoarthritis.
  • Cross-linked proteins from AGEs can cause Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Damaged proteins accumulate in brain cells that disable and kill them eventually.
  • Glycation of LDL particles has been well documented as an important cause of increasing the plaque formation in arteries by LDL. Glycated LDL is much more susceptible to oxidation than regular LDL. Oxidized LDL causes damage to the lining of the arteries and destroys endothelial nitric oxide synthase. This is a critical enzyme, which is involved in maintaining vasodilatation and blood flow. Once LDL has become glycated, it is deformed and LDL receptors can no longer recognize it. This means that glycated LDL continues to circulate in the bloodstream where it contributes to the atherosclerotic process. It forms a plaque which becomes a reason for heart attacks and strokes. Glycation of LDL is particularly common in patients with diabetes.
  • Glycation of the skin sensitizes the skin to UV light damage. It triggers oxidative stress that increases the risk of skin cancer.
  • Glycation damages our eyes. It causes clouding of the lens (cataracts) and it damages the retina. Macular degeneration can ultimately cause blindness.
  • When glycation affects the discs in the spinal cord, this can cause disc protrusions and disc herniations. Often the spinal nerves that are nearby get injured causing limping and leg or arm weakness.

Nutrients to counter AGEs

There are nutrients that can slow down the rate of glycation and as a result will halt the aging process.

Benfotiamine

Benfotiamine is a fat-soluble form of the water-soluble vitamin B1 (thiamine). It has been shown to reverse glycation in cell cultures and in humans.

As a result the damage to the cells that are lining arteries is reduced. Benfotiamine also counters diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy.

Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate

Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate is a metabolite of vitamin B6. It is similar to benfotiamine in that it counters glycation and dissolves deposited AGEs. It is particularly useful to stop fat and protein glycation. In diabetic patients lipid glycation is often a problem as these authors have shown. Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate traps glucose breakdown products before they become part of glycation reactions.

Carnosine

Carnosine is a dipeptide, made up of the amino acids histidine and beta-alanine. It is found in higher concentration in muscle and brain tissue. It scavenges for free radicals and prevents AGE formation. It is preventing both lipid glycation and protein glycation. This publication states that carnosine can play a role in preventing Alzheimer’s disease. As protein crosslinking is prevented with carnosine, tangled protein clumps cannot accumulate and cause Alzheimer’s disease.

Carnosine also reduces blood lipid levels and stabilizes atherosclerotic plaques. This reduces the risk of plaque rupture, which can cause a heart attack or stroke.

Carnosine also has a mitochondria stabilizing function resisting the destructive effects of oxidative stresses.

Luteolin

Luteolin is a bioflavonoid, which can be found in many plants. It has anti-inflammatory effects and works by suppressing the master inflammatory complex, called NF-kB.  NF-kB triggers the production of multiple cytokines and is associated with many cancers, chronic diseases, autoimmune diseases and septic shock. Kotanidou et al. did an experiment where they injected mice with Salmonella enteritis toxin, either with or without luteolin protection. Without luteolin only 4.1% of the mice survived on day 7. With luteolin protection 48% were alive on day 7.

Luteolin has been shown to be effective as an anti-inflammatory in the brain, the blood vessel lining, intestines, skin, lungs, bone and gums.

All these four supplements are available in the health food store. They work together and would be recommendable in diabetic patients where glycation is most prominent. But these supplements are also useful for older people who want to slow down the aging process in general.

Nutrients to slow down mitochondrial aging

Glycation is linked to mitochondrial deterioration and dysfunction. It accelerates aging in every aspect. AGEs (advanced glycation end products) crosslink proteins, lipids, but also damage enzymes and DNA. Mitochondrial energy production is slowed down by glycation. The end result is a lack of energy and slower repair processes, which all depend on mitochondrial energy production. The following supplements have shown some merit in reversing this process.

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)

PPQ is a supplement that is known to produce new mitochondria in cells. This helps the energy metabolism of aging cells to recover.

Taurine

Taurine is an amino acid that is found abundantly in heart and skeletal muscles cells, brain cells and cells of the retina. These are areas in the body with high metabolic rates that can burn out mitochondria. Taurine regulates enzymes in mitochondria that harvest energy from food substances. In patients who experience accelerated aging, a lack of taurine can produce an energy crisis. But supplementation with taurine can rescue the cells by reducing oxidative stress and restoring the function of mitochondria in cells that are aging. Brain cells were putting out new shoots, called neurites when taurine was given as a supplement. This helps to improve brain connection, and preserves memory and cognition.

R-lipoic acid

R-lipoic acid helps with mitochondrial function by being involved with extracting energy from foods. When R-lipoic acid is given to aging animals, their metabolic function improves, the mitochondria become healthier and there are less oxidative stress-inducing byproducts. It protects their liver, heart and brain cells from oxidative stress in their mitochondria. It is becoming known as an energy-giving supplement.

Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs)

Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs)

Conclusion

Sugar overconsumption and overcooking food can cause advanced glycation end products (AGEs) where lipids and proteins get cross-linked. This leads to premature loss of organ function. The mitochondria are also slowed down. This creates prematurely aging. Fortunately there are a few supplements like benfotiamine, pyridoxal 5’-phosphate, carnosine and luteolin. They protect against glycation. Mitochondria can also be protected by PPQ, taurine and R-lipoic acid. Although we cannot stop the aging process, avoiding sugar and stopping to consume overcooked food, such as barbecued meats and deep fried food is a sensible step in prevention.

With this approach and some supplements a lot can be done to slow down aging.

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