Mar
01
2005

Sleep More For Healthy Body Weight

Sleep deprivation is a common problem in a society governed by stress and hurry. Less hours of sleep may give us the illusion of being more effective, but it seems to be at the expense of our health. Lack of sleep affects our brain metabolism in various ways, and researchers at Columbia University recently examined data on 6115 people, ages 32 to 59 from a U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The findings were presented at a recent meeting of the North American Association for the Study of Obesity. Of those who slept less than four hours per night 73% were more likely to be obese. Those who slept six hours per night were 23% more likely to be obese. The findings further suggested that in people who sleep less than eight hours per night (about three quarter of the 1024 participants), body mass index was inversely proportional to sleep duration.

The researchers also reported the reasons for that. Sleep deprivation lowers leptin, a blood protein that suppresses appetite and sends the signal, when the body had enough food. Lack of sleep also raises ghrelin levels, a polypeptide hormone from the stomach wall, which makes people want to eat. Laboratory tests of one study showed that making do with only four hours of sleep resulted in an 18% reduction of the leptin (the “appetite stopper”) and a 28% increase of the ghrelin (the “appetite animator”). Translated into plain text, it means that the breaks were removed and the signal given to eat by 46% more than in persons with a sufficient dose of sleep.

Increase of obesity risk due to sleep deprivation

obesity risk with sleep deprivation

Obesity risk with sleep deprivation

In addition sleep deprived healthy persons in their 20’s also craved more sweets and starchy foods than well-rested individuals and these added calories are stored as body fat. These hormonal changes are the biochemical evidence pointing to the connection of a sleep-deprived lifestyle with obesity and the associated health problems like diabetes and cardiovascular illness.
Drastic diets don’t seem to hold the answer. Part of the entire picture may be as simple as sleeping more and as a result weighing less.

Reference: The Medical Post, February 1, 2005,page 17

Last edited December 7, 2012

Jan
01
2005

Doctor Recommended Diet Against Obesity

After overindulging over the holidays, new years resolutions often have diets and life style choices high on the list.
These concerns are not something new. Doctors have had concerns about heart disease, diabetes, bulging waistlines and elevated cholesterol. For over three decades there have been concerns that elevated insulin levels may be associated with heart disease, and the constellation of symptoms was called “syndrome X” and later the “insulin resistance syndrome”.

Most recently the evils that are associated with body fat have been called the “metabolic syndrome”.The problem has assumed epidemic proportions: by 2001, 30% of US adults were considered obese with a body mass index of over 30, and 50% were overweight with a body mass index over 25. The form of type 2 diabetes (the adult onset of the disease) is predicted to double in the next 20 years. Physicians are reporting that they are seeing increasing numbers of children who are obese and suffer of type 2 diabetes. The major concern with an accumulation of body fat is the area of the abdomen (think of the “apple shape” with fat around the abdomen). This visceral fat tissue is not just innocently sitting there stopping you from closing buttons and zippers. It is very metabolically active and the substances it releases are a threat to your health. These fat cells secret pro-inflammatory substances called “cytokines.”

They also form substances that influence blood-clotting, factors that increase insulin resistance, substances like angiotensin, which are signing responsible for high blood pressure as well. Among the host of damaging substances is also the C-reactive protein, which is recognized as a risk factor for heart disease.

Doctor Recommended Diet Against Obesity

Doctor Recommended Diet Against Obesity

There is only one solution: to reduce the risk, excessive weight has to be shed. A sensible diet to achieve that goal has to contain less saturated fat, more fiber, and low glycemic index carbohydrates. Proper dietary habits are only one part. The other as important measure is life style intervention, which includes 2.5 to 3 hours of moderate exercise per week.
Many of the current diets promise weight loss without compromising health. All of them promote weight loss, provided they are strictly adhered to.
The high protein diets (Atkins, Protein Power Plan) are useful for rapid initial weight loss, however due to the overload of protein long term use is highly questionable. Kidney dysfunction as a consequence is a threat to health and no benefit at all!
Moderate carbohydrate diets, moderate fat, as well as moderate protein will remain the answer for long-term life style changes. It is also of significance that the glycemic index of carbohydrates plays a major role. Food intake, which favors carbohydrates with a low glycemic index, is associated with less heart disease. It has also been documented that insulin levels are more stable. Low glycemic carbohydrates include most vegetables, beans, lentils, as well as fruit like apples, pears and oranges. In contrast, high glycemic carbohydrates result in a fast insulin release, which ultimately leads to insulin resistance. Among these items are potatoes, crackers and other flour products, rice, puffed or flaked breakfast cereals, and tropical fruit (papayas, pineapple, melons).

For short-term dieters, it is an option to embark on any of the current diets without deleterious effects, no matter whether they are high-carb or low-carb. But at this point only the diets with moderate carbohydrates have shown to have some benefits on heart health.
Ultimately the wiser choice is to consume foods with a low to moderate glycemic index, by increasing the intake of vegetable proteins and oils and by choosing increased servings of vegetables and fruit instead of highly processed items. So, when you next walk through your supermarket, remember that most of the good stuff is in the periphery, namely the area where all the fresh, unprocessed or minimally processed foods are found.

More info about Mediterranean diet: http://nethealthbook.com/news/mediterranean-diet-benefits-us-workers/

Reference: Metabolic Syndrome Rounds, Oct. 2004, Vol. 2, Issues 8, St. Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto/On/Canada

Last edited October 27, 2014

Jan
03
2004

Any Diet A Winner Research Says

 

Dr. Michael Dansinger reported at a recent annual meeting of the American Heart Association about a study where he compared the effect of 4 major diet plans on the lowering of risk factors for heart disease.

Dr. Dansinger is the director of obesity research at the Tufts New England Medical Centre’s Atherosclerosis Research Lab in Boston. Originally, the objective was to see whether any of the following four diets investigated would be superior: the Atkins diet, the Ornish diet, the Zone diet and the Weight Watchers diet. In the table below there are links for each of these diet plans. Briefly, the Atkins diet is a high protein/low carbohydrate diet; the Ornish diet is a vegetarian/low-fat diet; the zone diet is a low-glycemic load/balanced protein/low fat diet; weight watchers is a calorie restricted diet.

160 obese patients were divided into 4 groups and assigend to one of these four diet plans. They were instructed in the type of diet plan they were to follow in 4 couselling sessions in the beginning of the weight loss program. The participants ranged in age from 22 to 72 years of age (average age 50) and had on average starting weight of 220 lbs.

Any Diet A Winner Research Says

Any Diet A Winner Research Says

They were to follow the diet plan for 2 months strictly and were allowed to follow less supervised for another 10 months. To the surprise of the research team under Dr. Dansinger they all lost about the same amount of weight (average of weight loss 10 lbs or 5% of body weight), in other words they were all successful with any of these programs and none was superior. Below are the results in modified tabular form.

Dr. Dansinger indicated that the focus would now have to shift from “which is the best diet plan” to “which is the best diet plan for a particular patient”. The doctor should attempt to fit the weight loss programs that fit patients’ food preferences best and that patients can easiest fit into their lifestyle. This will hopefully lead to the lowest dropout rate. This trial showed that the Zone diet and the Weight Watchers diet had the least dropout rates. But those who stayed on the Atkins or Ornish diet were successful with their weight loss program also, as these may have been fitting these patients best.

Comparison of various diets with regard to weight loss effectiveness
Diets that
were compared:
Reduction of
heart risk (Framingham score):
Dropout rates
over 1 year:
Atkins diet
12.3% 48%
Ornish diet 6.6% 50%
Zone diet 10.5% 35%
Weight Watchers
diet
14.7% 35%

In other words, if the one diet plan does not work satisfactorily, try another one. The common denominator with all food plans was some form of calorie restriction despite all of the differences.

Based on The Medical Post, Dec. 16, 2003 (p. 15).

Here is a link to the Net Health Book’s weight loss and diet chapter.

Last edited December 8, 2012

Mar
01
2003

Do Diet Drinks Make You More Hungry?

There were some articles recently that stated that diet drinks would make you hungry. However, they lacked proper controls. For this reason the gastroenterologist, Dr. Khursheed Jeejeebhoy, from the University of Toronto/Ontario designed a well controlled 10 week trial where several parameters were measured while patients were either snacking on diet drinks or on sugar containing soft drinks on top of their regular food intake, which was also closely monitored. The only requirement in the beginning of the study was that the subjects had to be overweight (body mass index of 27 to 28). Participants of the study were then divided randomly into subjects drinking soft drinks with either sugar or sugar substitutes. The drinks were blindly given, but meticulous records were kept of what was consumed. In addition the subjects were allowed to eat as many snacks as they liked with either sugar in it or sugar substitutes. Below  is a tabular summary of the findings.

The surprising findings were that the sugar group had an increased appetite and wanted to eat more and more. Sugar also raised the blood pressure significantly.

Do Diet Drinks Make You More Hungry...

Diet Drinks Make You More Hungry

The result was a significant weight gain during the 10 weeks of the trial while the other group (AS) had lost a significant amount of weight without any hunger pangs. The researchers also measured body fat versus muscle mass and found that the sugar group (SG) had gained fat mass without changing the muscle mass. On the other hand the atrtificail sweetener group (AG) had lost only fat mass, not muscle mass.

Dr. Jeejeebhoy concluded according to the article in The Medical Post (Jan.14, 2003 edition, page 27) that sugar in snacks and drinks should be kept to a minimum to prevent obesity from developing or getting worse. Patients with high blood pressure should avoid sugar as much as possible and stick to a low glycemic-index diet. Drinks should be diet drinks or fluids without sugar content. Do diet drinks make you more hungry? The answer is: “NO!”

Artificial Sweeteners And Weight Loss(10-Week Study)
Findings: Comments:
Additional Calories
from drinks per day:
AS: 250 Cal.       SG: 870 Cal.
total caloric intake over the 10 weeks: AS:decreasing steadily
SG:increasing
steadily
appetite sensation: AS:no appetite
complaints
SG:sugar stimulated
appetite
weight gain or loss: AS:significant weight loss SG:significant weight gain
activity level(exercise) no change in either groups (AS or SG)
blood pressure
AS:no change
SG:sugar increased
blood pressure significantly
AS=Artificial sweetener group SG=Sugar group

Comment: Not every diet drink is medically safe. Aspartame and Sodium cyclamate are brain excitotoxins. One of the safest alternatives to sugar is Stevia. Read this review about  sugar alternatives.

Last edited December 10, 2012

Feb
01
2003

CRP Test Better Than Cholesterol Test

At the 75th Annual Scientific sessions of the American Heart Association in Chicago several presentations centered around the use of the C-reactive protein test to evaluate risks for heart attacks, strokes and the risk of restenosing after doing a cardiac procedure to reopen stenosed coronary arteries.

I have previously reported about the use of the C-reactive protein (CRP) test in a review regarding Dr. Paul Ridker’s study in the New England Journal of Medicine.

This study is ongoing and is known under the name “Women’s Health Study”. He followed a large group of women and found that an increase of the CRP was closely associated with heart attacks. Other investigators found now that an increase of CRP is closely linked with obesity, with the metabolic syndrome (also known under “insulin resistance”) and hormone replacement therapy.

CRP Test Better Than Cholesterol Test

CRP Test Better Than Cholesterol Test

There appears to be a pivotal shift among cardiologists in that it is now clear that inflammation seems to be at the center of the process of hardening of the arteries, not just in a few cases, but in everybody who has heart disease.  Below I  summarized some of the features of CRP in a table.

C-reactive protein (CRP) and risk for heart disease
Facts: Comments:
CRP is produced by the endothelial cells that line the arteries CRP is intimately involved with arteriosclerosis. It has been identified as the culprit, which produces hardening of the arteries together with LDL cholesterol
CRP interferes with nitric oxide release from the endothelial cells, which is required for normal function this leads to a dysfunction of the lining of the arteries, atheromatous plaque formation and it stimulates scavenger cells, called macrophages, to take up LDL. CRP also causes plaque destabilization and clotting
these factors elevate CRP: obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hormone replacement in menopause with artificial hormones, but NOT with bio-identical hormones
these factors lower CRP: low carbohydrate diet, exercise, statins, rosiglitazone (Avandia), lowering of insulin

There will be a lot of information coming out in the next few years. Two major trials have been started where patients with a normal cholesterol, but an abnormally high CRP, will be followed along.

The JUPITER trial will look at the effect of treating these patients with rosuvastatin (brand name: Crestor). About 15,000 patients will be enrolled in this trial and followed for about 4 years. The Canadian 4R trial (Risk Reduction with Ramipril in patients with high CRP) uses ramipril (brand name: Altace) for 12 weeks to see whether it reduces CRP levels. Much more research is needed, but the doctors already know enough about CRP to state that it is a major player when it comes to hardening of arteries. They also know that LDL cholesterol is not outdated, as both LDL cholesterol and CRP play important roles in this process.

Based on a cardiology update in the Medical Post, Dec. 31, 2002, page 17 to 19.

Comments on Dec. 10, 2012: The 4 R Canadian study showed a tendency towards a lowering of CRP with Ramipril, but it was statistically not significant due to numbers that were too low and the observation period was not long enough. The Jupiter trial had to be abandoned after two years as there was concern of diabetes being caused by Crestor and because the effect of prevention of heart attacks was not seen early enough (the number of treatments required before a beneficial effect could be seen was too high). Here is a review why  rosuvastatin (brand name: Crestor) should be approached with caution.

Here are other links to related topics that won’t have serious side-effects:

Heart disease: http://www.nethealthbook.com/articles/cardiovasculardisease_heartdisease.php

Two things will lead to a normal weight (as you likely have heard before):

Proper nutrition…http://www.nethealthbook.com/articles/nutrition.php

…and proper exercise (fitness): http://www.nethealthbook.com/articles/fitness.php

Last edited December 10, 2012

Jan
01
2003

Framingham Study…Obesity And Smoking Lead To Loss Of Life

The Netherlands Epidemiology and Demography Compression of Morbidity Research Group has published an important medical research paper in the Jan. 7, 2003 edition of the Annals of Internal Medicine (Ann Intern Med 2003;138:24-32).

The lead researcher, Dr. Anna Peeters, explained that the group has revisited the Framingham Heart Study 40 years later and analyzed survival statistics of the group of men and women who enrolled in this longterm study between 1948 and 1951. The population at the beginning of the study was aged between 30 and 49. The snap shot, after 40 years had elapsed, is the subject of this analysis. In order to make it easier to understand, I have tabulated the data as seen below.

This study shows that life style choices do matter: being overweight shortens your life by 3 years on average, being obese shortens it by 6 to 7 years.

Add the risk of smoking, and you end up shortening your life by 7 years in the case of being overweight (4 years more than without smoking) or more than 13 years, if you are obese.

Framingham Study...Obesity And Smoking Lead To Loss Of Life

Framingham Study…Obesity And Smoking Lead To Loss Of Life

This study was based on 3,457 participants who 40 years ago had a life expectancy of 85 years, if they were in the normal weight category and did not smoke.

The death rates were much higher than the researchers expected. The researchers from the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam stated as a conclusion: ” just think about two things: Don’t get fat and don’t smoke”.

Years of life lost 40 years after Framingham Heart Study Was Started:
Non-smokers: Smokers:
  Male Female   Male Female
overweight *: 3.1 3.3 overweight*: 6.7 7.2
obese** : 5.8 7.1 obese ** : 13.7 13.3
* overweight:BMI25 to 29.9 ** obese:BMI = 30 and higher

Here are some links to my Internet based Healthbook regarding risks for heart attacks and strokes:

Heart disease: http://www.nethealthbook.com/articles/cardiovasculardisease_heartdisease.php

Strokes: http://www.nethealthbook.com/articles/cardiovasculardisease_strokeandcerebralaneurysm.php

Two things will lead to a normal weight (as you likely have heard before):

Proper nutrition…

http://www.nethealthbook.com/articles/nutrition.php

…and proper exercise (fitness):

http://www.nethealthbook.com/articles/fitness.php

Last edited December 10, 2012