• Writing A Medical Book

    Writing A Medical Book

    In my 40’s when I was practicing medicine, I was dreaming about writing a medical book. This was in the mid 1980’s and I was busy seeing 30 to 40 patients a day. I would never have found the time to write a medical book at that time. I thought, perhaps I could show how patients could stay younger for longer by … [Read More...]

  • What Makes Chips Addictive?

    What Makes Chips Addictive?

    When you emptied an entire bag of potato chips, you may ask yourself: what makes chips addictive? Scientists talk about hedonic hyperphagia or hedonic hunger. In plain English, it is the pleasure of eating, even when you are not hungry. There are certain foods that seduce you to overeat, and one of these are chips. … [Read More...]

  • Combatting Aging using Artificial Intelligence

    Combatting Aging using Artificial Intelligence

    I found an article dealing with combatting aging using artificial intelligence. It comes from the April 2018 edition of the Life Extension Magazine.  Both of those concepts sound intriguing: “combatting aging”. It would be nice, if this would be a possibility! And “artificial intelligence” (A.I.) sounds mysterious. … [Read More...]

  • Benefits Of Eating Nuts

    Benefits Of Eating Nuts

    You hear from time to time that there are benefits of eating nuts. But you don’t often see more details about it. I came across an article entitled “Nut lovers rejoice: Your favorite snack protects your heart”. It stressed that nuts prevent heart attacks. I will review some of this information here, but also touch … [Read More...]

  • What lowers LDL cholesterol?

    What lowers LDL cholesterol?

    Many times we hear terms like LDL and HDL cholesterol , but what lowers LDL cholesterol? We have to go back to a time when the ongoing Framingham Heart Study wanted to find out what caused a heart attack or a stroke. In the 1960’s scientists found out that cigarette smoking increased heart attack risk and also blood … [Read More...]

  • Sex Stimulates Your Brain

    Sex Stimulates Your Brain

    Sex usually causes positive feelings, but how is it that sex stimulates your brain? Recently this publication reviewed exactly what is going on. The reason both sexes seem to seek out sex is the fact that it is sex that stimulates the brain a certain way, which is pleasing to both partners. Due to the stimulation … [Read More...]

    Apr
    01
    2003

    Menopause And Perimenopause In Women

    In the February 19, 2003, issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association there was an extensive review of the topic of menopause and the time before and after menopause, called “perimenopause”.

    The authors, Dr. Lori A. Bastian, from Duke University, and colleagues critically reviewed 1,246 articles on this topic and identified 16 studies that were accepted as being reliable regarding the review of this topic.

    They were interested in finding menopause symptoms, signs and blood tests that would be reliable in terms of assessing whether a woman would be approaching menopause or would be in menopause. The result was that no single test or symptom was reliable, but that a number of tests and symptoms in combination were very helpful.

    Menopause And Perimenopause In Women

    Menopause And Perimenopause In Women

    They measured reliability by “likelihood ratios (LRs)”. What this means is that any value above 1.0 is significant, but the higher the number, the more reliable and important is this fact or sign. I summarized the findings in table form below.

    Results of a Review Study on Menopause in Women
    (modifed according to Feb.19, 2003, issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association)
    Findings:
    Likelihood ratio (LR): Comments (by Dr. Ray Schilling):
    self assessment of going through the transition 1.83 this is based on the effects of the changing hormones on the woman and how she feels it
    is affecting her
    symptoms of hot flashes 3.10 lack of estrogen from ovaries leads to a lability of the skin blood vessels with increased skin perfusion as well as stimulation of the sweat glands
    night sweats 1.90
    sleep pattern is changed and there is a loss of the day / night rhythm of skin perfusion
    vaginal dryness 2.64 due to lack of estrogen
    high follicle-stimulating
    hormone levels
    3.06 feedback from estrogen missing, which stimulates the hypothalamus of the brain to produce more
    FSH hormone
    low inhibin levels 2.05 this is a newer test, which is more specific than the FSH test and also has some importance in fertility work-ups
    Self-assessment of perimenopausal status 0.25 this is not a reliable test as it is below 1.0. It was included to show how good the other tests are in comparison

    The authors concluded that there is no need for blood tests for menopause diagnosis in a woman, if several points of the first 4 findings are positive (top part of the table).

    Here is a link regarding menopause.

    Last edited December 9, 2012

    Apr
    01
    2003

    Older Americans Need More Knowledge About High Blood Pressure

    A telephone survey of 1,503 Americans age 50 or older was published recently by Dr. Brent Egan from the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, in the March 24, 2003 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine. Although 94% had their blood pressure measured at least once in the past year, only 46% knew how much it was. Of all the patients who knew that they had a systolic blood pressure of 140 mm mercury or higher, 30% did not know that this was abnormal and was called “systolic hypertension (high blood pressure)”. 20% of patients with established high blood pressure did not take their medication or had on their own reduced the amount of medication they should have taken. In this group only about 1 in 5 complained that the cost of the medication would have been the reason for stopping the blood pressure pills.

    Below are some more general results regarding this study in table form.

    Apart from the remarks on the importance of education mentioned in the table I would like to stress how important it is for patients with high blood pressure to learn how to measure their own blood pressure at home.

    Older Americans Need More Knowledge About High Blood Pressure

    Older Americans Need More Knowledge About High Blood Pressure

    The method of how to do this is not as important as the fact that you buy and use some kind of home blood pressure measuring device (either the conventional bood pressure cuff or the more expensive electronic device). You can measure and record your own blood pressure either daily or 3 to 4 times per week and bring this record with you to the doctor’s office with your next check-up. With this method you will gradually learn what life style factors bring your blood pressure up and how much medicine you need to take to control the blood pressure at all times. This will prevent major events such as heart attacks and strokes and preserve eye-sight and kidney function.
    Here are the results of a telephone survey regarding older Americans and their understanding of high blood pressure (modified from March 24, 2003 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine).

    Results of a telephone survey regarding older Americans and their understanding of high blood pressure
    (modified from March 24, 2003 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine)
    Findings:
    Comments:
    Older Americans have a higher rate of high blood pressure, particularly high systolic blood pressure This makes it even more important that they learn more about it and that they learn to measure
    their blood pressure at home.
    Older Americans are not as educated about high blood pressure than the younger generation Likely related to upbringing and different interests; in the past healthcare was left to physicians and nurses. Now we realize that only we can look after ourselves, the physicians
    and nurses are “health consultants” whom we hire to advise us.
    Older Americans prefer an integrated approach to the treatment of high blood pressure utilizing traditional, complementary and alternative treatments The authors concluded that a combination of education and holistic management strategies likely would work best. This needs to include new research on identifying the
    most effective treatments. I would like to add that weight loss (in case of increased BMI), exercise and a zone-like diet would help complement traditional drug regimens
    very effectively as well.

    Here are various useful links regarding related topics.

    Link regarding body mass index (BMI) .

    Link regarding high blood pressure(hypertension)

    Last edited December 9, 2012

    Apr
    01
    2003

    Flu Shots Prevent Heart Disease, Lung Disease, Strokes And Deaths

    It has been known for some time that flu shots would be beneficial. But it was not known until now whether in larger field studies people who are 65 years or older would benefit significantly and to what degree from yearly influenza vaccinations (“flu shots”).

    The April 3rd, 2003 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine published the answer to this question. Dr. Nichol from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, and his collegues have followed 140,055 patients of whom 55.5% were vaccinated against the flu in the 1998/1999 flu season.

    They also followed 146,328 subjects during the 1999-2000 flu season of whom 59.7% were vaccinated against the flu. Below is a breakdown how they fared when compared to non-immunized controls (see table).

    Flu Shots Prevent Heart Disease, Lung Disease, Strokes And Deaths

    Flu Shots Prevent Heart Disease, Lung Disease, Strokes And Deaths

    The examiners of this study concluded that high risk patients (asthma patients, patients with diabetes, cancer, elderly patients, arthritic patients and patients with high blood pressure) should have a yearly Flu vaccination.

    Patients after Flu vaccinations. How did they do?
    (based on 1998/99 and 1999/2000 flu seasons)
    Complications: Observation:
    Comments:
    Heart disease: reduced 19% this included heart failure and heart attacks
    Hospitalization for stroke: reduced 16% to 23% often hospitalization for stroke patients can be weeks and months, often resulting in other complications due to bacterial superinfections, falls or clots
    Pneumonia and
    influenza rate:
    reduced
    29% to 32%
    this can lead to heart attacks and deaths from bacteria in the blood
    Death rates: reduced 48% to 50% all of the deadly complications from getting the Flu remarkably reduced by Flu shots!

    However, in my opinion anybody would benefit from regular Flu vaccinations as this boosts the immune system in general protecting against other infections and colds as well.

    Here is a link to a chapter on the flu in Net Health Book.

    Last edited October 25, 2014

    Apr
    01
    2003

    SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)

    What is SARS? SARS is a new strain of an acute flu that leads to a high fever, a severe cough and an atypical pneumonia where the inflammation of the lung tissue caused by this new type of virus leads to a severe lung infiltration that can be detected with chest X-rays. Cases similar to SARS have been known to the medical profession for several decades under the name of “atypical viral pneumonia”.

    Most viruses lead to a laryngotracheitis, affecting only the lining of the upper airways like the trachea and the voice box. However, SARS is not like this. It is a new strain of virus that goes right down into the lung tissue and leads to more severe breathing problems from secretions that plug the airsacs (alveoli) of the lungs. However, only about 3% to 4% of patients who get SARS actually die as explained in the links below (see CDC and WHO Internet sites). Here is a brief review explaining the evidence in the medical literature that is known at this time (April 2003). Since March 2003 it is known that SARS likely is transmitted by a small virus belonging into the same family of viruses like measles or mumps (the Paramyxoviridiae family of viruses). This WHO link explains this in more detail. However, Dr. Francis Allan Plummer from the National Microbiology Lab in Winnipeg/Canada has isolated a human metapneumo virus in six out of 8 specimens from high suspicion cases for SARS that were submitted to the Lab. It is at present not clear whether there are only one or perhaps two or three similar viruses that may work in concert in tricking the immune system not to mount an immune response in some susceptible persons whereas in the majority of patients the immune system produces enough antibodies to overcome the disease.

    SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)

    SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)

    In a publication from the New England Journal of Medicine, which was released one month early on Apr.10,2003, the SARS working group noted that there has been a corona virus isolated from 18 SARS patients who died from this disease 10 to 14 days into it and that this was a new strain of virus, which likely originated from a single ill health care worker from the Guangdong Province in China. These researchers used genetic tests (reverse transcription- polymerized chain reaction), electron microscopic tests of cell cultures with throat swabs from infected SARS patients as well as immunological tests with group specific corona virus antibodies to pinpoint the cause of SARS.

    The new name for this virus: Urbani SARS-associated coronavirus in honor of Dr. Carolo Urbani, a WHO investigator who died of SARS himself when he investigated the early epidemic in Asia.

    There might be inborn (genetic) weaknesses in some patients. The National Institute of Health is developing a vaccine against the corona virus, which is thought to trigger SARS. At the present time the best therapy is isolation in a hospital for those who are very sick with a possible combination treatment with corticosteroids and antiviral antibiotics, which may be 70% effective in halting the disease. The most important point is prevention of further transmission by isolation procedures (quarantine). Hopefully there will be a vaccine available soon, which could possibly be incorporated into the Flu vaccine.

    More information in Dr. Schilling’s Nethealthbook:  http://nethealthbook.com/infectious-disease/infectious-disease-infections/severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome/

    Here is a link to the official CDC site about SARS

    This link brings you to the World Health Organization site (WHO) where SARS is discussed.

    Last edited October 25, 2014

    Mar
    01
    2003

    Testosterone For Male Menopause (Andropause)

    At a recent continuing education meeting at the University of Calgary in Alberta/Canada, which was reported in the Jan. 14, 2003 edition of the Medical Post, Dr. Norman Wong (professor of medicine, biochemistry and molecular biology) reviewed the symptoms, investigations and treatment modalities available for men who experience andropause (the male equivalent of menopause). They are as follows (my summary in table form).

    Here is a link to the ADAM questionnaire regarding andropause by Dr. Morley, a geriatrician at the St. Louis Unversity in Missouri. If you answer “yes” to question #1 and #7 (sexual dysfunction or lack of sex drive) or if you answer “yes” to any three of the other total of 10 questions, you should see your physician and ask for a testosterone blood test.

    What should you know about testosterone blood tests? What counts is the free testosterone or bioavailable testosterone. Dr. Ronald Swerdloff, professor of internal medicine and endocrinology at the UCLA School of Medicine in Torrance, California, stated at this conference that testosterone production decreases with aging, but is actually also one of the causes of aging. Testosterone levels decrease 1% to 2% every year from the age of 30 onwards. However, the sex hormone binding protein (SHBP) can buffer these changes for a certain period of time, if the SHBP is binding less testosterone thus keeping the free or biologically available testosterone relatively stable for a number of decades or years. Often, however, the andropausal men who need testosterone replacement have high SHBP levels. Nobody knows why some men have problems earlier than others. So, if the free testosterone serum level is low (and the LH and FSH hormones are low or normal) this means that this man likely should have testosterone replacement therapy, if there are also clinical signs and symptoms of hormone deficiency.

    Testosterone For Male Menopause (Andropause)

    Testosterone For Male Menopause (Andropause)

    As can be seen from this link to menopause in women , the pituitary hormones LH and FSH, which are also known as gonadotropins, should be high to indicate that the feedback mechanism between the estrogen (or in the male the testosterone) no longer suppresses the production of these gondotropins. The fact that this mechanism is lost in most older men shows that the hormone deficiency is likely much more profound than a simple deficiency, it may actually be indicative of the aging process of the hormone glands themsevles. The good news though is that with a simple testosterone patch this can be fixed. Your doctor can discuss this further with you.

    Other possibilities are injections every 3 to 4 weeks with a Depot-testosterone hormone preparation or tablets. However, with the tablets the problem is that this will get metabolized in the liver and higher amounts of hormone are required to overcome the liver barrier. Liver cancer has been reported in a small percentage of men taking tablets for a long period of time (I do not like testosterone tablets for this reason). Prostate cancer is the other worry and regular PSA tests and prostate exams should be done by your doctor. As no controlled trials have been done yet regarding the safety of longterm testosterone replacement in andropausal men, Dr. Swerdloff recommended to replace only in the lower dose range to the point where the free testosterone serum values are just barely normalized and the clinical signs and symptoms disappear. Overtreatment should be avoided.

    Andropause symptoms (male menopause)
    Symptoms: Comments:
    loss of sex drive (libido) testosterone, which is the male hormone produced by the testicles, is needed for a normal sex drive
    erectile dysfunction
    (impotence)
    inability to have sustained erections
    loss of male characteristics loss of male type hair distribution, deep voice, muscle mass etc.
    fatigue and depression brain hormones dysbalanced from low testosterone levels
    decrease in muscle mass, increase in fat mass lack of testosterone responsible for muscle loss and change in bone metabolism
    oligospermia or azoospermia too little sperm count or no sperm present

    Addendum Nov. 2, 2012: At the 19th Annual World Congress Anti-Aging and Aesthetic Medicine in Las Vegas (December 8-10, 2011) Dr. Abraham Morgentaler, a Harvard trained urologist explained that with bio-identical testosterone replacement there is no longer any concern about prostate or liver cancer with long-term use. It has been one of the “medical myths” that has been around.

    See also link to andropause/male menopause from the Net Health Book.

    Last edited December 9, 2012

    Mar
    01
    2003

    Hyperthermic Chemotherapy For Colon Cancer

    When colon cancer comes back (Duke stage D cancer) there often are seedlings of cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity, which in the past made surgery impossible. However, at Montreal’s Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital the surgical oncologist, Dr. Pierre Dubé, is using a brand new technique that allows to do surgery even in these difficult cases. It has been known for some time that cancer cells are heat sensitive.

    At the time of the surgery all of the visible cancer is removed, like with ovarian cancer, using a cytoreductive surgery approach. At the end all invisible cancer cells are treated with a combination chemotherapy fluid that is introduced into the abdominal cavity and that is heated in a controlled manner. Heat probes measure the temperature and make sure the fluid is heated to 44°C (111°F). Other experiments have shown that at this temperature chemotherapeutic agents enter into the cancer cells faster, as they had been rendered more fragile by the heat. The end result is an increase in survival by 2 to 2 1/2 years. This is a breakthrough because in the past conventional combination chemotherapy for this group of advanced colorectal cancer patients achieved a remission (meaning “response rate”) of 0%. Now with this new technique there is a remission rate of 30% to 50%. Hyperthermic chemotherapy for colon cancer was pioneered at the Gustave Roussy Institute in Paris where Dr.Dubé was introduced to this technique. This was reported in the Jan. 14, 2003 edition of The Medical Post (page 7). According to Dr.Dubé about 10% of all colorectal cancer patients will need this type of surgical approach and about up to 25% of patients who develop cancer spread into the abdominal cavity (peritoneal carcinomatosis) would be potential candidates for this treatment modality.

    Hyperthermic Chemotherapy For Colon Cancer

    Hyperthermic Chemotherapy For Colon Cancer

    Comments: Recently there has been a paper intitled “Factors predicting survival after intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy with mitomycin C after cytoreductive surgery for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis” by P.Shen et al. (Arch Surg – 01-JAN-2003; 138(1): 26-33). 109 patients with carcinomatosis of the abdominal cavity with different cancers were treated with cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic chemotherapeutic solutions. With this procedure, after complete removal of gross cancerous disease, the 3-year survival rate achieved 68% versus 21% of those where gross cancer removal was not entirely possible.

    Last edited October 25, 2014

    Mar
    01
    2003

    Garlic Component Effective Against Head Lice

    The Jan. 21, 2003 edition of the Medical Post published an article about some Argentine research involving the active ingredient of garlic, allicin.

    Dr. Juan Barboza and his collegues from the University of Cuyo in Mendoza started their research first with plant lice, as they had been approached by farmers to help them find a natural way to fight lice infestation of their crop .

    Of the various chemical compounds in garlic it was the allicin compounds that were most effective in asphyxiating common pests, particularly plant lice. Subsequently they were experimenting with head lice formulations. Shortly after there was a severe outbreak of headlice infestation at the day care center of the university.

    This was an opportunity for the researchers to test the efficiency of the new formulation of a mixture of allicin with a mint-scented cream. With only one application of this formulation there was a 96% reduction of the number of head lice within only 1 week!

    Garlic Component Effective Against Head Lice

    Garlic Component Effective Against Head Lice

    Here is a link to other useful hints about head lice.

    Last edited December 10, 2012

    Mar
    01
    2003

    Do Diet Drinks Make You More Hungry?

    There were some articles recently that stated that diet drinks would make you hungry. However, they lacked proper controls. For this reason the gastroenterologist, Dr. Khursheed Jeejeebhoy, from the University of Toronto/Ontario designed a well controlled 10 week trial where several parameters were measured while patients were either snacking on diet drinks or on sugar containing soft drinks on top of their regular food intake, which was also closely monitored. The only requirement in the beginning of the study was that the subjects had to be overweight (body mass index of 27 to 28). Participants of the study were then divided randomly into subjects drinking soft drinks with either sugar or sugar substitutes. The drinks were blindly given, but meticulous records were kept of what was consumed. In addition the subjects were allowed to eat as many snacks as they liked with either sugar in it or sugar substitutes. Below  is a tabular summary of the findings.

    The surprising findings were that the sugar group had an increased appetite and wanted to eat more and more. Sugar also raised the blood pressure significantly.

    Do Diet Drinks Make You More Hungry...

    Diet Drinks Make You More Hungry

    The result was a significant weight gain during the 10 weeks of the trial while the other group (AS) had lost a significant amount of weight without any hunger pangs. The researchers also measured body fat versus muscle mass and found that the sugar group (SG) had gained fat mass without changing the muscle mass. On the other hand the atrtificail sweetener group (AG) had lost only fat mass, not muscle mass.

    Dr. Jeejeebhoy concluded according to the article in The Medical Post (Jan.14, 2003 edition, page 27) that sugar in snacks and drinks should be kept to a minimum to prevent obesity from developing or getting worse. Patients with high blood pressure should avoid sugar as much as possible and stick to a low glycemic-index diet. Drinks should be diet drinks or fluids without sugar content. Do diet drinks make you more hungry? The answer is: “NO!”

    Artificial Sweeteners And Weight Loss(10-Week Study)
    Findings: Comments:
    Additional Calories
    from drinks per day:
    AS: 250 Cal.       SG: 870 Cal.
    total caloric intake over the 10 weeks: AS:decreasing steadily
    SG:increasing
    steadily
    appetite sensation: AS:no appetite
    complaints
    SG:sugar stimulated
    appetite
    weight gain or loss: AS:significant weight loss SG:significant weight gain
    activity level(exercise) no change in either groups (AS or SG)
    blood pressure
    AS:no change
    SG:sugar increased
    blood pressure significantly
    AS=Artificial sweetener group SG=Sugar group

    Comment: Not every diet drink is medically safe. Aspartame and Sodium cyclamate are brain excitotoxins. One of the safest alternatives to sugar is Stevia. Read this review about  sugar alternatives.

    Last edited December 10, 2012

    Mar
    01
    2003

    The New Hot Asthma Treatment: Bronchial Thermoplasty

    There is a new concept in the treatment of asthma, a mechanical solution rather than the familiar pharmacological solution. As is outlined in the lung disease chapter of my nethealthbook.com, the treatment of asthma is usually a combination of inhaled and oral medications that have as a target the smooth muscular envelope of the bronchial tubes, which is depicted in this link. In addition to the spasm of the bronchial tubes some anti-inflammatory steroid inhalers are also needed to control the swelling of the lining of the bronchial tubes, which can obstruct the air flow from inside.

    Dr. John Miller has done research with the Alair catheter system at Broncus Technologies Inc. in Mountain View, CA (San Francisco Bay Area). Dr. Miller helped to develop this bronchoscopic instrument with a concealed expandable wire basket that can be heated. In cooperation with Dr. Gerard Cox from the Respiratory Division of McMaster University in Hamilton/Ontario/Canada they tested this procedure on a small group of 14 mild to moderately severe asthma patients. The procedure consisted of a 30 minute bronchoscopy during which several heat cuts were made through the muscle layer of the bronchial tubes using this instrument (the heat used is only as hot as a cup of coffee). The smooth muscle layer of the bronchial tubes remains relaxed after this. A total of four such treatments were given, 3 weeks apart. The result was surprising in that the breathing performance doubled, which would have been considered to be a good drug effect, if this result had been achieved with the help of medication. However, this effect is permanent and medication can still be used on top of this, if necessary.

    The New Hot Asthma Treatment Is Bronchial Thermoplasty

    The New Hot Asthma Treatment Is Bronchial Thermoplasty

    The researchers will now start a larger multinational trial including a total of 110 moderate to severe asthma patients from Canada, England and Scotland, Germany and Denmark. Results of this study are expected to be published in 2004. (Based on The Medical Post, Feb.11, 2003, page 37).

    Last edited December 10, 2012

    Feb
    01
    2003

    Celiac Disease Frequency Examined In This US Study

    There has not been a large study in the US looking at the natural frequency of Celiac disease (CD) in the population. Celiac disease is an inborn hypersensitivity to gluten, to be more precise, a hypersensitivity to the sub-fraction of gluten, called “gliadin”, which leads to an atrophy of the villi in the small intestine.

    Dr. Alessio Fasano, from the University of Maryland in Baltimore, and colleagues have examined a total of 13,145 subjects in their study to look for specific antibodies in the blood and by doing as many bowel biopsies to see how many cases of CD would be found. There were 4 groups of patients that could be identified: 4,508 first-degree relatives of CD proven patients; 1,275 second-degree relatives; 3,236 symptomatic patients who either had gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms or who had a disorder associated with CD; 4,126 patients not considered at risk and who could serve as a control group. Below are the results of the study in tabular form.

    The blood tests that were performed were the anti-endomysial antibodies (EMA). In all positive tests two more specific CD blood tests were done as well.

    Celiac Disease Frequency Examined In This US Study

    Celiac Disease Frequency Examined In This US Study

    The results in the table showed that the first degree relatives of CD patients are at a higher risk of developing he disease, even if they have no bowel symptoms (they may be incubating the disease before they even get CD). Second degree relative had about half the risk from first degree relatives. A surprisingly high number of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms do have CD (1 in 56 patients). The normal control group finding of 1 CD patient among 133 people was very similar to the European studies that had been published in the past.

    Celiac disease US study findings
    Patient group:
    Statistics: Frequency
    of CD in group
    first degree relatives 1 in 22
    second degree relatives 1 in 39
    patients with gastrointestinal symptoms 1 in 56
    normal control group 1 in 133

    Details about CD under this link: http://nethealthbook.com/digestive-system-and-gastrointestinal-disorders/celiac-disease/

    Last edited October 25, 2014