Weight Loss Surgery Is Unnecessary

Dr. Flavio A. Cadegiani gave a talk saying that weight loss surgery is unnecessary. Dr. Cadegiani is the director of a weight loss clinic with the name Corpometria Institute in Brasilia, Brazil. He is board certified in endocrinology and metabolism and in internal medicine. He presented his talk at the 24th Annual World Congress on Anti-Aging Medicine (Dec. 9-11, 2016) in Las Vegas that I attended.

Here are the main topics that he presented.

Weight measurements are wrong when based on the BMI

Dr. Cadegiani stated that we do not understand obesity, because we look at it from the wrong angle. Current dietary approaches have failed. But obesity research is still proceeding in the wrong way. If all else fails, weight loss surgery is finally the last resort. But this is wrong.

The problem with body mass index (BMI) is that people would consider an athletic body type “obese”, because the BMI exceeds 30.0. However in a very muscular person the reason for the elevated BMI is an increased muscles mass, not fat. Body composition scales reveal that, but a simple weight measurement does not.

Dr. Cadegiani recommended measuring waist circumference with <94 cm (37 inches) for men and <88 cm (34.65 inches) for women being normal.

10 reasons why we are misled by the BMI

  1. The inventor of the BMI was a mathematician. He explicitly stated that the BMI would not predict the level of fatness of an individual. The other factors are bone mass and muscle mass.
  2. Because the BMI ignores the waist size, it is scientifically invalid.
  3. There are physiological reasons why it is wrong: studies did not factor in the relative proportion of the bone, muscle and fat content.
  4. The BMI gets the logic wrong: the CDC site claims that the BMI “is a reliable indicator of body fatness for people”. This is simply not true!
  5. The BMI is based on bad mathematics: the formula assumes low muscle mass and high fat content.
  6. The BMI is lying by scientific authority: Dr. Cadegiani said it has an “air of scientific authority, but it is mathematical snake oil.”
  7. The BMI suggests that there are distinct categories of underweight, ideal, overweight and obese. It assumes sharp boundaries that hinge on a decimal place. All of this is nonsense.
  8. Cynical people could suspect that medical insurance companies lobby for the continued use of the BMI as it keeps their profits high. Sometimes insurance companies charge higher fees for people with an elevated BMI.
  9. Doctors can contribute to the continued use of the BMI, if they don’t feel the need to use another way of assessing their obese patients.
  10. It is embarrassing that we still base the assessment of obesity on a 200-year-old mathematical formula when we know of  more reliable measures.

Bariatric surgery done too easily

Dr. Cadegiani noted that publications on bariatric surgery (=weight loss surgery)

underreport surgical complications and deaths. The bariatric industry is rich, and 90% of the booths during obesity conferences belong to bariatric-related companies. Long-term follow-up studies are lacking. Those who do follow-ups report an increase of pancreatic tumors after 10 years following bariatric surgery.

Long-term follow-ups also describe a 70% increase of psychiatric disorders including depression and alcoholism. Those who had bariatric surgery experience a 200% increase in suicides.

Overcoming weight centered approach

Here is how to avoid the weight-centered approach that would lead the clinician to wrong conclusions.

There are four factors that need consideration:

  1. The assessment includes metabolic blood markers
  2. The assessment incorporates body composition scales
  3. The patient participates by measuring waist circumference and body weight
  4. The clinician incorporates clinical signs and symptoms

Classic metabolic markers are liver enzymes and hormone levels like testosterone, Thyroid (T3) LH and IGF-1. Apo B and triglyceride levels have to come into consideration  for a lipid metabolism assessment. The physician monitors inflammation through a combination of uric acid levels, ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP). An oral glucose tolerance test and fasting insulin level can predict diabetes 5 to 10 years before it will occur clinically. Other metabolic markers are homocysteine and metalloproteinases. There are newer tests to measure insulin resistance.

Oxidized LDLc is the only marker that is linked to diabetic retinopathy. Another marker, resistin is an independent marker for obesity-related cancer, cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. A triglyceride-waist circumference index has been found to be the best predictor for future development of diabetes.

Body composition analysis

The patient measures his/her own waist circumference and body weight on body composition scales. This gives additional information about fat and muscle composition. Dr. Cadegiani’s team likes to understand what is really going on in terms of what triggers fat excess.

Questions are: what is the level of emotional overeating? How much anxiety is there in the patient’s life that leads to overeating? What is the social and cultural environment? What were previous weight loss attempts? And what is the family history in term of excessive weight?

Other important factors are to check for binge eating disorders or night eating syndrome. In addition any patient planning to go for weight loss therapy should be checked for depression, mood disorders and suicide potential.

Otherwise body composition scales by electrical bioimpedance were found to be very useful in assessing fat and muscle percentage as well as visceral fat percentage.

Aggressive clinical approach improves metabolism

Dr. Cadegiani and his group have published their own research paper in February 2017 showing that an aggressive clinical approach can prevent the need for bariatric surgery.  This publication describes that in a group of 43 subjects who were thought to be bariatric surgery candidates only 3 patients (7%) went on to have the procedure done. 93% of the subjects were able to shed pounds with the method offered and avoided bariatric surgery.

They documented that clinical parameters and blood tests all improved on their program. The researchers focused on triggers that caused obesity in their patients. The measured markers were oxidized LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, the liver enzymes ALT and μGT, fasting glucose, Hemoglobin A1C, uric acid and CRP. All of these parameters improved with the modification in food intake. 81.2% of the weight loss was from the reduction of fat mass. 46.5% of patients had a normal waist circumference measurement at the end of the trial. They also achieved normal body fat and visceral fat percentages. As already stated 93% of all the patients in this trial avoided weight loss surgery, called bariatric surgery.

Dr. Cadegiani suggested that obesity should be approached with a scientifically based and responsible method. This will change the way we manage obesity.

Weight Loss Surgery Is Unnecessary

Weight Loss Surgery Is Unnecessary


Attention to detail of the patient with weight problems will allow the patient to reduce fat percentage. Waist measurements should be regularly performed as well as body composition scales measurements. This way the physician can follow the fat and muscle percentages. Key to success is to reduce the refined carb contents of food intake (sugar and starchy foods) and have a calorie deficit diet. Exercise is also an important component. An aggressive clinical approach to obesity can improve the clinical outcome and can prevent bariatric surgery.


Pollution And Soaring Lung Cancer Rates

In early 1900 lung cancer was unheard of. This was before the cigarette industry started to mass-produce and market cigarettes.

However, ever since the arrival of the industrial revolution air quality has suffered. In China poor air quality has now reached such enormous values that the specialized cancer agency of the World Health Organization, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has labeled poor air quality as one of the causes of lung cancer.

When you rank countries by average air pollution measurements, one sees that Europe, the US and South America overall have good ratings, whereas the Middle Eastern countries, China and India have poorer ratings.

However, when the pollution index of cities where the population is much denser than in the countries at large, are tabulated a much different picture emerges: Cities in Iran, India and Pakistan stand out as particularly bad followed by cities in China, Eastern Europe, Paris, London, Berlin, cities in California (the populous State), Chicago and New York.

Pollution does not stay local, but travels through the stratosphere around the globe. The result is that now 10 to 15% of lung cancer in the US occurs in patients who never smoked. This translates into 16,000 to 24,000 deaths annually of never-smokers in the US.

In certain cities such as Beijing the lung cancer rates have doubled in 9 years between 2002 and 2011. As this article shows lung cancer in never smokers can be caused from exposure to radon, to second-hand tobacco smoke, and other indoor air pollutants can also cause such cancers. But the outdoor air quality has been a problem ever since the industrial revolution, which started around Europe in the 1800’s and first part of the1900’s. In the latter half of the 1900’s much of the industrial wave has migrated to the Middle East, to India and China. But the air quality of the whole world has suffered as the jet stream and other air currents carry pollution in the stratosphere all around the globe.

Pollution And Soaring Lung Cancer Rates

Pollution And Soaring Lung Cancer Rates

History of pollution in various regions

1. In Germany’s  Ruhr district (“Ruhrgebiet”) in North Rhine-Westphalia, a highly populated industrial area, pollution reached a peak in the late 1950’s. From 1963 onward many of the coal mines, iron ore mines and other mineral mines closed down. 50 years ago the German Chancellor, Willy Brand was concerned about the environment and promised that blue skies would return to the Ruhr district again.  A special task force was initiated and maximally allowable limits were established for industries’ pollution emissions and enforced by the German government. Government and industry were co-operating in developing anti-pollution measures, which have cleared up a lot of the pollution since. With regard to car emissions lead free gasoline was introduced and carburetors ensured more complete burning of exhaust gases. This is now common and accepted anywhere except for diesel fume exhaust, which nobody wants to address despite proven carcinogenicity.

Now Germany is one of the leaders in green technology, which is also important for tourism.

2. England has its own legacy of pollution in soil and air from the industrial revolution. The soil of moorland, which soaked up acid rain for decades, is more acidy than lemon juice and it will take a long time despite industrial complexes having closed long time ago, before the soil quality will be returned to normal.

3. Hamilton in Ontario/Canada has had a longstanding pollution problem, which I witnessed from 1976 until my departure in 1978. It is well known that Stelco, the local steel plant downtown Hamilton is sending polluting emissions into the air. In 1976 a vising professor from Australia gave an interesting talk about a study that was done at that time regarding the risk of developing bronchogenic carcinoma (a synonym for lung cancer) in the immediate surroundings of the Stelco plant. He said that this was one of the first studies to show that the distance of people’s houses from the source of pollution mattered as that determined how concentrated the air pollution was (the closer the more polluted the air). This  affected cancer rates: they were much higher in the immediate surrounding of Stelco when compared to the average rate in the rest of Hamilton. This difference was very significant within a radius of 1 kilometer (= 0.62 miles) from the Stelco plant.

Just in May of 2013 the local cancer agency of Hamilton announced that the lung cancer rate in Hamilton was higher than elsewhere in Ontario because of a combination of poor air quality and of a higher percentage of people smoking. Then in August 2013 the city of Hamilton announced a new air pollution bylaw for stricter pollution measures to improve the air quality in the downtown area. It is just a pity that Hamiltonians had to wait until 2013 before the city approved an anti-pollution bylaw that could have been passed 50 years earlier like in Germany’s Ruhr district!

4. In 2008 Pittsburg, a former steel manufacturer town like Hamilton, Ont. outdid Los Angeles with regard to small particle air pollution.

Lung cancer prevention by the authorities

As mentioned before up o15% of lung cancer is caused by environmental exposure. So, we ourselves can only prevent 85% of lung cancer by not smoking and not exposing ourselves to industrial emissions or to smoke from incense. However, in many cities around the world you will get exposed to air pollutants that are well above the safe limits, so the risk of getting lung cancer from just breathing the air there can be much higher than in rural areas where there is no industry.

Technologies to control air pollution are widely available. We need to exert pressure on politicians to show leadership around the world. Government regulations to lower emission rates need to be put into place and inspectors need to ensure the rules and regulations are adhered to. Without reducing emissions of cancer producing gases and chemicals right at the source (open burning of cuttings in orchards or burning cut trees), cutting emissions of cars, planes, ships, diesel cars, locomotives, electric generator plants etc. the air quality will not improve. Despite some costs involved industry, governments and individuals have to work together to make clean air happen.

The residents of those countries that have low pollution values will not benefit, if pollution continues to occur in other parts of the world as it just travels in the stratosphere around the globe until it arrives right here at home! We need an international pollution police. Satellites can be used to monitor where pollution occurs and this can be followed up through the local regulatory bodies with penalties and remedial actions.

What can I do personally to prevent lung cancer?

1.The most obvious step is to quit smoking and ask smokers who come to your place to smoke outside (not in your home).

2.Consider moving away from the city, if the air quality is unacceptable to a place where there is low air pollution.

3.Vitamin D3 has been shown to prevent colorectal cancer, but as there are vitamin D receptors found on the surface of various cells in tissue around the body including the lungs, many researchers feel that this vitamin in higher doses (2000 IU to 5000 IU) has probably a wider applicability in preventing cancers, even lung cancer.

4.Cutting out sugar and adopting a Mediterranean type diet is a prudent thing to do; also cutting down your calories to the maintenance you need (mildly ketogenic diet). If you bought body composition scales, it would display what your daily calorie consumption is and you should not exceed this, or else you’ll gain weight. An aging man who is overweight will experience hormone changes as fat is being metabolized and the enzyme aromatase contained in fatty tissue will turn male hormones (testosterone, DHT, androstenedione) into estrogen. Estrogen (particularly estradiol) is a known carcinogen that has been proven to cause breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men. However lung cancer is also being promoted in women by estrogen as discussed in this link. In men one needs to remember that lung cells have estrogen receptors and there is concern in aging men with higher estradiol levels that this can promote cell divisions in existing lung cancer. So, it is important to maintain a normal body mass index between 21 and 24 (well below 25.0 and well above 18.5, which are the official accepted limits). This way there is no problem with insulin resistance (too high an insulin level), and other metabolic substances (cytokines, growth hormone like factors and tumor necrosis factor-alpha from body fat) that are cancer promoting.

5. If testosterone deficiency is present, which is common in older men, testosterone will have to be replaced with bioidentical hormones. It is a myth that testosterone would cause prostate cancer. Testosterone in males is necessary to maintain a normal metabolism including the immune system, which then can fight lung cancer and any other cancers.

6. Exercise and reducing beef consumption are also often mentioned in terms of preventing lung cancer.

7. Here are several recommendations from the LifeExtension Foundation that I found very useful in terms of lung cancer prevention. This link shows that antioxidant vitamins such as vitamin C, alpha tocopherol, the minerals selenium and zinc are also helping to reduce the lung cancer rate. Drinking green tea has also been shown to be effective in a dose-response curve manner (more tea protecting more from lung cancer). Vitamin B12 and folate have been shown to reduce abnormal bronchial cell growth in smokers as shown by repeat bronchoscopy studies.

8. Those who have been smokers in the past and those who have been around heavy smokers for more than 10 years in the past should consider having a preventative bronchoscopy done by a lung specialist (also called respirologist or pulmonologists). This way any suspicious areas with precancerous lesions can be biopsied during the procedure and attended to.

Hopeful research for new lung cancer treatments

Lung cancer is a disease that is best prevented. Once a person gets lung cancer, the prognosis is still very poor. However, cancer researchers are getting close to newer treatments involving genetically modified T-cells (killer cells) as was recently achieved for leukemia. Similar research is going on regarding ovarian cancer, melanoma, lung cancer and pancreatic cancer.

More information about lung cancer:


It is not acceptable to let pollution take its course , the way politicians around the globe have handled this in the past 6 decades with a few notable exceptions mentioned. We all suffer a higher risk of getting lung cancer, even if we have been life-long non-smokers. Right now up to 15% of lung cancer in most populations are of this type. However, in Beijing this number is already much higher. The technology is available; Germany has led the way in the Ruhr district in the 1960’s and beyond. In my opinion the G8 meetings should have this high on their agendas and send technological aid to all the regions that have higher than the average world pollution index under the mandate of a special UN commission. This should be supported by the major industrial players with the knowledge that they will prevent the death of millions of potential consumers down the road, which will on the long-term pay off the relatively minor investment of installing pollution controls, before lung cancer levels rise even more.

Last edited Nov. 7, 2014


What a Wonderful World

Recently I traveled from Palm Springs to the Caribbean and back. There were connecting flights and there was waiting at various airports, so I had lots of time to watch people and to observe what was happening around me.  Louis Armstrong’s song (1967) “What a Wonderful World“ came to mind , and I thought that this would be a fitting title for this Blog. Earlier we had come from Canada escaping the winter. The deep blue sky of Southern California and the sight of palm trees (instead of pine trees) is something that makes our hearts beat faster. The desert is a special place. We had friends join us for a week and we had visited Joshua Tree Park with the grotesque looking rock formations. During the flight it was interesting to see the landscape, as we crossed the desert areas of Arizona and New Mexico, seeing what difference people make when large areas are irrigated and the desert transforms into lush, green areas. It is also very visible, where the desert has taken back the land that no longer is irrigated.

We came to Dallas Fort Worth and the sky was clear. We traveled on to Miami and the sky was showing signs of pollution, although it was a sunny day. After our take-off from Miami we saw the ocean. I have flown over that region many times before, but this time I detected oil slicks on the surface of the ocean of the Gulf of Mexico, leftovers from previous oil spills. So, the Armstrong song of a “wonderful world” came back to me in a different context. I looked at the landscape and what industries can do to it. Erroneously we had just seen several BP commercials while waiting for our plane at the airport where BP was congratulating itself for the role it plays in cleaning up the environment having spent several billion dollars. But there are still oil slicks…

What a Wonderful World

What a Wonderful World

I looked at the people around me in the plane. More than 35% of them were obese; many of their faces looked sagging and prematurely aged, particularly in women. Males, even middle aged ones looked like they were pregnant (abdominal fat) and often their hair was receding, thinning on top and quite a few were bald. All of the texts I had read about anti-aging medicine came back to me. Too bad that people were eating the wrong foods and obviously did nothing to counter their built-in aging clock from depleting hormones as we age. I looked at the menu of the airline (I won’t mention the name of the airline, but I can assure you that 10 different airlines would have almost the same menus), but there would only have been one chicken salad that I could have eaten. In the past I tried to order this and I was told that due to popular demand this item was sold out. Instead they wanted to offer me potato chips, cheese and crackers. My wife and I had anticipated this scenario and we had bought a chicken salad and water before we boarded the plane. We also had packed healthy organic energy bars and a trail mix consisting of nuts and raisins to use as snacks during the trip. While travelling we stuck to the same principal of cutting out starches, bread, rice, pasta and only eating fresh vegetables, salads and lean meat (chicken, grass fed beef, ribs, lean pork and veal), which we always do since the fall of 2001.  We also avoid all alcoholic beverages and sugar containing sodas. When we returned to Southern California we were delighted to see that our body compositions when measured with the body composition scales were identical to what they were before the trip.

I think we can all contribute to this wonderful world, if we participate in whatever we can do such as these steps.

  1. End wars because on the long-term they do not lead anywhere to solve conflicts (in my lifetime I am thinking about the Vietnam war, long-winded Ireland crisis, the Korean war and the German reunification at the end of the Cold War). Right now there is the Middle East conflict, which screams for a peaceful solution. As we are conscious about the devastation that is caused by wars, we have to start with ourselves. We have to resolve our own conflicts that may be present in our own lives. Tolerance, acceptance and forgiveness are the tools.
  2. Pollution needs to be addressed by the US and all of the world’s countries (including Canada where I live most of the time). This means that anti-pollution devices need to be installed in industrial plants and chimneys. Recycling needs to be done on a larger scale. China and India and other emerging market countries need to be taught how these new anti-pollution measures work. This is an ongoing project, but we need more co-operations between government, industry and countries all around the globe. Also we have to start with our own behavior: we can become more aware of reusing and recycling instead of creating more waste in our landfills.
  3. What can we do to make us part of this wonderful world? We need to become better caretakers of our bodies. Instead of looking at quantity we must look at quality in choosing  natural food wherever possible. Growing up in Germany after the Second World War in the 1960’s and early 1970’s made me witness that high consumption of fat, sugar and starchy foods (potatoes, pasta and bread) caused people to age prematurely and get heart attacks, strokes, high blood pressure, arthritis, obesity, diabetes and cancer. At that time the “Wirtschaftswunder” (translated into English it means “economic miracle”) had propelled Germany into a nation of  high consumers. During the war they had been poor and often went hungry, they were slim and heart attacks were at an all-time low. After the war they made up for times of deprivation and overindulged:  pretzels, buns, bread, butter, French fries, sweets, cakes, cookies, jams, chocolates, pralines-everything was consumed with gusto!  What happened to Germany in the 1960’s and 1970’s is happening again right now in front of our eyes with the obesity wave in the US, Canada and all the other civilized countries around the world. Food companies have been very successful with their advertizing through the media. Already kids get hooked to the wrong foods! Hyperinsulinism will ensure that we get hungry every two or three hours. Refined carbs and extra calories are turned into fatty acids by the liver and stored as fat. It shows that we have to resist the wrong food temptation and cut out all refined carbs. It is healthier to stick to salads and vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower, asparagus, and spinach and eat a small piece of lean meat with it. Have probiotics as plain yoghurt (0% to 2% fat). If you need a sweetener, use a small amount of Stevia, which is a natural sweetener that leaves your body chemistry untouched. Have some fruit as a dessert like blueberries, cherries or strawberries. Eat an apple, the occasional grape. Drink lots of purified water or mineral water.
  4. Buy ORGANIC food whenever possible. Most of the vegetables and fruit have been treated with insecticides, which contain residuals in them. When these are ingested, they act like estrogenic substances causing breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men. The safest in our society is to stick to organic foods. More expensive, but the best insurance against future disease. Question politicians whenever possible to make yourself heard. You want unadulterated food and water. And as I’m writing about water, have a water filter under the kitchen sink with a carbon filter or have reversed osmosis to get rid of chloride or fluoride from the city water. This is what you use to cook your food. You may want to take an iodine tablet once or twice a day to counteract the negative effects of chlorine from having a bath or shower (chlorine gets absorbed through the skin). Why? Because chlorine and fluoride can displace the iodine of the thyroid hormones and make you hypothyroid.
  5. Exercise every day. Nobody gets fit in their muscles from sitting in front of the TV for hours or from spending hours and hours of computer work. If you have to, counterbalance this with an exercise program of 1 hour per day. Walk 30 minutes on a treadmill and do 30 minutes of weights or use specific exercise machines in a gym to strengthen your upper and lower extremity muscles.
  6. Did I mention hormones? Yes, I did above when I mentioned depleting hormones as we age. It is known now for some time that each hormone of the body has its own peak in life and then it declines in production as we age. Or should I rather say, we age when these hormones decline? I like the latter way of wording it, because we can measure hormone levels and when one of the hormones is too low, we can replace it with a bio-identical hormone and the person’s energy comes back and whatever function was missing is restored. This is in essence what anti-aging medicine does. Many conservative physicians and clinics do not like to hear this. Big Pharma does not like to hear this, as I am talking about replacing hormones in the body with bio-identical hormones, not with patented cheap copies that are mass manufactured, sold at inflated prices, but are no fit to the hormone receptors in the body and therefore are dangerous. The artificial drugs cause heart attacks, strokes and cancer as the Women’s Health Initiative has shown in 2002.
  7. What should have been done with the people I watched on the plane? They should have been hormone tested by their physicians. Many of the overweight or obese patients would likely have had high fasting insulin levels. The extra fat does not just sit there; it is a hormone producing factory for inflammatory compounds and estrogen-like substances. This causes heart attacks and strokes in women. It causes prostate cancer and hair loss in males as well as impotence (“erectile dysfunction”). What I said under point 3, 4 and 5 would help these people that I met. When fat is lost through changes in the diet and when an exercise program is started, the body mass index slowly comes down as fat melts away. The estrogen production comes down, the inflammatory substances abate. The person feels more energetic and may even think straighter. One special test is a saliva hormone test that looks at 5 steroid hormones: DHEA-S (storage form of DHEA), testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol. Every man and every woman needs a certain balance between these hormones and this test should be done when there is a change in energy or appearance (hair loss) somewhere when we are 35 to 40 years. In women it is important that the progesterone level is 200 times fold higher than the estradiol level (progesterone/estradiol ratio) or she is at risk of developing breast cancer and other cancers (ovary, colon etc.). In a man it is important that his testosterone to estradiol ratio is higher than 20 to 1. This protects him from cancer of the prostate or other cancers. Whatever is missing can be prescribed by the physician or a knowledgeable naturopath who is familiar with the use of bio-identical hormone creams. This program can prevent diseases like osteoporosis, diabetes, cancer and arthritis. It also prevents disabilities.

So with a view towards a new year (2013) and with a sense of leaving 2012 behind, I am looking forward to the time when more people can see Louis Armstrong’s vision of a “Wonderful World”.

More information on:

1. Pollution:

2. Obesity:

3. Processed food:

Last updated Nov. 6, 2014