Nov
30
2019

Ketogenic Diet With Ketone Supplementation

There is a newer way to shed some pounds using a ketogenic diet with ketone supplementation. Ketosis with a ketogenic diet is difficult to achieve because it requires a lot of fat consumption and at the same time extremely low carb intake to trigger the ketogenic response. The October 2019 issue of LifeExtension magazine contained an article about a ketogenic diet with ketone supplementation. There are dip sticks with which you can test your urine for ketone bodies to verify that your metabolism has switched to ketosis. But you can also take some ketone supplements including beta-hydroxybutyrate. By adding this supplement it is easier to achieve ketosis.

Why do people think of starting a ketogenic diet?

Calorie restriction can mimic the effects of fasting. It leads to ketone production and improved energy metabolism. Your blood sugar goes down, you lose weight and diabetes becomes easier to manage. In an animal experiment with worms with the pretty name “C. elegans” researchers fed beta-hydroxybutyrate to these roundworms. They extended their lifespan by 20%.

Many who are motivated to go on a ketogenic diet hope to lose weight and others may hope to live longer. One large US study from the Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA showed that mortality over a period of 25 years was lowest when carbohydrates were in the 50 to 55% range. In the same study when carbohydrates were replaced in ketogenic diets with animal-derived protein and fat sources, mortality increased by 18%. Meat and fat were from sources such as lamb, beef, pork, and chicken.

Problems with ketogenic diets

Physicians have had the concern that their patients on ketogenic diets tend to eat cheap fats and meats that contain trans fats. These unhealthy fats lead to premature death from accelerated hardening of the arteries resulting in heart attacks and strokes.

The alternative: a ketogenic diet with ketone supplementation

A new approach to anti-aging is taking ketone bodies like beta-hydroxybutyrate as a supplement. A publication from 2017 stated that oral ketone bodies could mimic the life extending properties of caloric restriction. The authors stated: “An exogenous ketone ester provides a new tool for mimicking the effects of caloric restriction that can be used in future research. The ability to power mitochondria in aged individuals that have limited ability to oxidize glucose metabolites due to pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibition suggests new lines of research for preventative measures and treatments for aging and aging-related disorders.”

Another publication from 2017 describes how ketones can be used as alternatives to glucose for energy. Brain cells and muscle cells in particular are very capable to utilize ketone bodies for energy. Two principal ketones are significant: acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. The liver is involved when fatty acids are broken down and ketones are manufactured.

Ketone metabolism

Ketones provide energy without raising blood sugar levels or stimulating insulin secretion. The body requires less processing of ketones to release energy. This means that less NAD+ is used to metabolize ketones. The end result is that more NAD+ circulates in the body, which is used to repair damaged DNA and helps slow down the aging process. Ketones mimic many of the effects of caloric restriction and intermittent fasting dieting. Ketone metabolism reduces risk factors for diabetes and heart disease.

Human experiments

A 2018 study took 20 individuals aged between 18 and 35 years and tested them with an oral glucose tolerance test. Half of the subjects received a ketogenic hydroxybutyrate monoester, the other half just water (placebo group). The ketogenic group had 16% lower blood glucose levels. Their insulin sensitivity was 11% lower. The authors concluded: “These results suggest that ketone monoester supplements could have therapeutic potential in the management and prevention of metabolic diseases.”

Longevity in humans 

There has been a lot of research in the last few years indicating that sirtuins (SIR1 and SIR3) are important anti-aging genes. NAD+ needs to activate sirtuins first to make them effective. Unfortunately with the aging process less NAD+ is available, which leaves the sirtuins genes inactivated.

In rat experiments feeding of a ketogenic diet resulted in increased levels of NAD+. The researchers measured an oxidative DNA damage marker in the hippocampus of the brain. This showed much less DNA damage in rats fed a ketogenic diet when compared to controls on a regular diet.

Study of humans with Alzheimer’s disease

Another human study examined the blood of Alzheimer patients, patients with mild cognitive impairment and normal controls.  Alzheimer patients had low ketone levels in the blood as well as low 2-hydroxybutyric acid. Overall this showed that there is a change in metabolism in Alzheimer’s patients that leads to low ketone bodies in the blood on one hand and beta amyloid deposits on the other hand leading to memory loss.

A further experiment with Alzheimer’s patients showed that cognitive function improved after elevation of ketone blood levels following ingestion of beta-hydroxybutyrate.

A healthy way to raise ketones

Investigators in this human study determined whether various ketone-drinks were elevating blood ketone bodies reliably. 15 volunteers received ketone esters or ketone salts as a drink. There was a reduction of blood pH by 0.1 units using ketone esters. The ketone salts elevated the urinary pH from 5.7 to 8.5. An experiment with 16 volunteers measured the effect of having a meal before taking ketone esters. The ketone blood level showed a reduction of 33% after the volunteers consumed a meal and they took the ketone supplement afterwards. Ketone supplements lowered blood glucose, lowered free fatty acid and also lowered triglyceride concentrations. On the other hand, there was no change of the electrolyte levels. The authors said: “We conclude that exogenous ketone drinks are a practical, efficacious way to achieve ketosis.”

Ketogenic Diet With Ketone Supplementation

Ketogenic Diet With Ketone Supplementation

Conclusion

The liver produces ketones when a person is fasting or is on a ketogenic diet. However the high fat content of a ketogenic diet can lead to atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries with the subsequent developments of strokes and heart attacks. A much safer way of raising ketone bodies in the blood is by taking ketogenic supplements by mouth. Animal experiments and clinical trials have shown that oral ingestion of ketogenic substances appear in the blood stream within 30 minutes and remain there for 3 to 4 hours. The body tolerates ketogenic supplements well with no side effects.

Prevention of Alzheimer’s disease, achieving weight loss and longevity

They likely will play a larger role in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease in the future. Ketogenic supplements may be an adjunct to weight loss diets. In addition, fatty acids metabolize into ketones, which turn into energy in brain cells and muscles. Oral ketones stimulate the formation of NAD+, which activate longevity genes (sirtuins). Older people have a hard time to metabolize glucose because of certain enzyme deficiencies. But the brain and the muscle tissue can metabolize ketones rapidly, even in older age. Unfortunately the price of such supplementation is forbidding at the present time.

May
18
2013

Treatment For Alzheimer’s Failed, But Prevention Succeeds

Recently another news story about a failed drug against Alzheimer’s disease (AD) went through the news media as shown in this link.

Donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine and memantine are the most common drugs used to attempt to treat Alzheimer’s as this review explains. None of these drugs are a real breakthrough with regard to truly curing AD, as the drugs only achieve a few months of delay in the eventual deterioration of the AD patient’s symptoms. On the other hand there is an overwhelming accumulation of data in the last few years showing that many different factors can prevent AD and dementia. Below I am reviewing all these preventative factors and steps.

Genetic and epigenetic factors in Alzheimer’s disease

Early onset Alzheimer’s disease occurs between 30 and 60 years of age. It is due to a genetic predisposition (mutations on genes of chromosomes 1, 14 and 21). Only about 5% of all AD cases are caused this way. The remaining 95% of Alzheimer’s cases are due to late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Here the causation is due to a combination of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. One genetic risk factor in this group is important, namely the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE), which is located on chromosome 19. There are several forms of APOE as this review explains. It also states that there is so much variation between the various APOE forms and even the worst form of this does not necessarily mean that the person who has this will come down with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. So APOE is presently only used in research projects. Your doctor will only order genetic tests in people who have a strong family history of early onset AD.

There is another genetic marker, the CYP46 gene that was found to be present in some late-onset AD patients. If it is combined in a patient with the APOE gene, there is a much higher chance of developing AD as this review shows.

Epigenetic factors are probably more important than genetic factors for most cases of late-onset AD, as this review explains. Another review came to the same conclusion.

What are epigenetic factors? Exercising, replacing missing hormones, using a calorie restricted, only 15-20% fat containing diet; and taking supplements as listed below that will keep harmful genes in the “off” position and protective genes in the “on” position. Taking these preventative steps is probably more powerful than using any of the presently available medications mentioned above.

Treatment For Alzheimer’s Failed, But Prevention Succeeds

Treatment For Alzheimer’s Failed, But Prevention Succeeds

Exercise, diet, control blood pressure

As already mentioned, these are some of the powerful epigenetic factors that will prevent AD down the road. Controlling blood pressure has long been known to improve cognitive function. It is now evident that there seems to be a problem with microcirculation in brain tissue before it comes to neurodegenerative changes of AD and the underlying deficiency in nitric oxide production in the lining of the diseased arteries. Other research has shown that a lack of nitric oxide (NO) production is also the underlying problem with hypertension.

Green vegetables such as kale, spinach, also cabbage varieties and red beets are a source of nitric oxide and have also been shown to prevent AD at the same time.

Add to this exercise and you have a winning combination for the prevention of AD. You guessed right: exercise increases NO production from he lining of your arteries. When people age their lining of the arteries does not produce as much NO as in younger years. However, there is a supplement available, Neo40 Daily, that can be taken twice a day to compensate for this.

Here is another report about a 30% to 40% reduction in the incidence of AD when people do regular, simple exercises.

More good news about fruit and vegetables: tomatoes, watermelons, pink guava, pink grapefruit, papaya, apricot and other fruit all contain lycopenes, which have been shown to prevent AD.

Recently a new testing tool in combination with a PET scan of the brain has been developed, which may help the treating physicians to assess improvement or deterioration of an AD patient objectively using this method. However, this is still considered to be only a research tool at this time.

Supplements to prevent Alzheimer’s disease

The following brain-specific nutrients play a part in the prevention and treatment of AD (according to Ref.1):

1. B-vitamins: they are important to support the energy metabolism of brain cells.

2. Vitamin C: this has antioxidant properties and prevents brain cells and supportive glia cells from oxidizing.

3. Vitamin E in the form of mixed tocopherols: together with vitamin C has been shown to prevent Alzheimer’s disease

4. Phosphatidylserine (PS), with an intake of up to 300mg/day: counteracts and prevents memory loss.

5. Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone), 100mg/day (it would be safe to take 400 mg per day, which is also cardio protective): stabilizes the mitochondria of brain cells and heart muscle cells. It is a powerful neuroprotective agent and supports ATP production (energy metabolism of brain cells).

6. Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), at a dose up to 240mg/day: increases micro vascular circulation, neutralizes free radicals from oxidation and improves short-term memory.

7. Omega-3 fatty acid and DHA, 1500mg/day: has anti-inflammatory properties.

Other nutrients that hold promise are:

8. Huperzine A, 100 to 200mg/day: natural anticholinesterase inhibitor, derived from the Chinese club moss, surpasses donezepil according to studies by doctors in China

9. Vinpocetine, 2.5 to 10mg/day: comes from the periwinkle plant, increases cerebral blood flow and stimulates brain cell metabolism

10. Turmeric extract (curcumin) is very beneficial in reducing tau protein deposits in AD.

All these statements and dosages are cited from Ref.1.

Hormones to prevent Alzheimer’s disease

According to Ref. 1 there are certain hormones that can prevent AD: DHEA, pregnenolone, estrogen (bioidentical estrogen only).

  1. DHEA is persistently low in AD patients and replacement with DHEA at 50 mg daily has shown improvements in muscle strength and energy of AD patients.
  2. Pregnenolone has been shown to be a powerful memory enhancer in animals and humans alike.
  3. Estrogen, if taken as bioidentical estrogen cream (Bi-Est) can improve brain function. Estrogen is a strong epigenetic switch that keeps a woman mentally younger for longer, but has to be balanced with bioidentical progesterone cream to prevent breast cancer and uterine cancer. A study showed that estrogen replacement early in menopause will cut down on the heart attack rates, but it is also known, particularly when given as bioidentical hormone cream to prevent AD.
  4. In addition progesterone has been described to be of value in the aging woman to preserve brain metabolism.
  5. Testosterone is known to protect against Alzheimer’s disease in the aging male.
  6. Melatonin at a starting dose of 1 mg to 3 mg at bedtime often helps to restore the disturbed sleep pattern, but also augments the effects of the other hormones (Ref.1).

Removal of toxins, particularly mercury

Mercury is extremely toxic in minute amounts and affects brain cells preferentially. Intravenous vitamin C/glutathione treatments as described in this blog will remove mercury from your system including the brain.

It may take 20 to 30 such treatments in weekly intervals followed by a maintenance program every two to three weeks to remove mercury from the body.

Other heavy metals can accumulate in the brain as well and must be removed. This is described here in more detail.

Conclusion

There have been major breakthroughs in prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia over the past few years, many unnoticed by the media. The search is still on for an effective drug that would treat AD when it is present. However, this may be 10 or 15 years away and we cannot afford to wait that long. Instead I suggest that people should embrace the concept of preventing AD by using as many of the factors described above. Both at the 2011 and the 2012 Anti-Aging Conferences in Las Vegas several speakers pointed out that a combination of several preventative factors will be much more effective than one factor alone and they estimated that about 80% of AD could be prevented this way.

References

Ref.1. Rakel: Integrative Medicine, 3rd ed., Copyright © 2012 Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier. Chapter 9 – Alzheimer Disease. Integrative Medicine: “Kirtan Kriya, Telomeres, and Prevention of Alzheimer Disease”, by Dharma Singh Khalsa, MD

Last edited Dec. 18, 2014