Jul
27
2018

Modified Poliovirus Effective Against Brain Cancer

A clinical trial found modified poliovirus effective against brain cancer. 61 patients with glioblastoma, the most deadly brain cancer there is, have been enrolled in this trial since 2012.

Glioblastoma treatment with genetically modified poliovirus

Dr. Gromeier, one of the lead cancer researchers at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina has done animal experiments. Unlike poliovirus, he found that genetically modified poliovirus was harmless for the central nervous system and yet he found modified poliovirus effective against brain cancer. This genetically modified poliovirus was attacking glioblastoma cells in cell cultures and in human brains. Dr. Annick Desjardins, a co-author of the study explained that the researchers had to take a piece of RNA away from the poliovirus and replace it with a neutral piece of RNA. This way it is still attracted to the numerous poliovirus receptors, which are expressed on many human cancers. The genetic sequence that allows poliovirus to reproduce in normal cells was taken out with the genetic modification. An inert RNA piece from the rhinovirus, the cause of the common cold was replacing this.

Effect of the genetically modified poliovirus

This way the modified poliovirus is no longer destroying nervous tissue. But the virus can still multiply in the glioblastoma cells, release toxins and kill these cancer cells.

Dr. Bryan Choi is a fellow in the Cellular Immunotherapy Program at Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center. He also works at the Department of Neurosurgery at Harvard Medical School. Although he was not part of this study he stated that this study was a giant step forward. “Perhaps the most promising aspect is the ability for this genetically modified virus to not only directly kill brain cancer cells, but to release tumor antigens,” Choi said. Antigens are toxic substances that stimulate the immune system to mount an immune response against the cancer. This immunotherapeutic effect is an important aspect of this new treatment modality.

Some human statistics of the pilot study showing modified poliovirus effective against brain cancer

Here are the highlights.

  1. 21% of the poliovirus patients are still alive three years after treatment; this compares to just 4% of the control patients who only received chemotherapy.
  2. The average survival time for the 61 patients who have received the genetically modified poliovirus therapy was 12.5 months. This compares with 11.3 months for a control group of matched patients. These had received standard treatment (chemotherapy).
  3. Some patients were much better responders than others. A 20-year old man a 60-year-old man survived 69 months (nearly 6 years). They are still alive today. This was unthinkable of in the past for patients with glioblastoma.

Repeat modified poliovirus therapy for glioblastoma recurrence

Dr. Darell D. Bigner, a co-author of the study, a professor of pathology and emeritus director observed the following. Some patients experienced initial reduction of the glioblastoma, and when the cancer came back they received repeat modified poliovirus treatments. To the surprise of the investigators the tumors shrank again and again. This was never the case with conventional chemotherapy. Once a glioblastoma is chemotherapy-resistant, chemotherapy will not work again.

Experience with modified poliovirus therapy

  1. In this trial treatment for glioblastoma started with implanting a catheter right into the center of the glioblastoma. An infusion of the engineered poliovirus followed, a process that could take up to 6.5 hours. Removal of the catheter was next.
  2. In the beginning researchers used higher doses of the genetically engineered poliovirus. Some people developed severe inflammation causing seizures, which needed treatment. Confusion and language difficulties were also side effects. Others developed pronounced nausea. The researchers decided to lower the dosage of the genetically engineered poliovirus, and the patients still had good clinical results.
  3. “We are presently enrolling in a phase 2 trial combining the genetically modified poliovirus with one dose of chemotherapy,” Desjardins said. “We are also enrolling in a trial for pediatric brain tumor patients.” In addition studies using genetically engineered poliovirus against breast cancer and against skin cancer are also in the planning stage.
  4. There are other new approaches where there the doctor injects the photosensitizer indocyanine into breast cancer tissue. Next the doctor points a laser beam near the infrared frequency of light to the cancer area. You find details about this procedure here.
Modified Poliovirus Effective Against Brain Cancer

Modified Poliovirus Effective Against Brain Cancer

Conclusion

A new approach to treating glioblastoma, one of the deadliest brain cancers, has shown promising results. A genetically engineered poliovirus is no longer making the person sick with polio, but instead destroys glioblastoma cells and prolongs patients’ lives. Some patients lived up to 6 years while controls lived less than one year. The effect of this new treatment occurs from the release of toxins within the glioblastoma cancer. This leads to cancer cell death and the release of these toxins. The immune system receives stimulation to recognize and destroy the remaining glioblastoma cells. At this point the basic steps of this new therapy are in place.

Future direction of research

But the same method will one day likely be in use for other cancers. There are plans for new clinical trials to examine this further. The researchers also want to test cure rates of a combination of chemotherapy and genetically engineered poliovirus therapy. This will answer the question whether the combination treatment will be better than genetically engineered poliovirus therapy alone.

Aug
24
2013

Pimples And Acne Can Be Caused By Food

For a long time nobody knew why teenagers get acne. But many assumed that it would come from hormonal changes as teenagers grow up. But why then are there some ethnic regions in the world where teenagers do not get acne? In this blog I will present the background that shows that wheat, sugar and dairy products are the culprits. They are not eaten in those regions of our planet where acne does not exist.

Regions where acne does not exist

1. The Kitivan Islanders of Papua New Guinea have no cases of acne in teenagers. They adhere to the old hunter/gatherer diet of no sugar, no alcohol, no wheat and no grains. Instead they eat root vegetables such as sweet potato, yam, taro, tapioca; fruit like papaya, pineapple, banana, mango, watermelon, guava and pumpkin; and also vegetables, coconuts and fish.

2. African Bantus and Zulus: These original African warriors eat a low glycemic diet with no wheat, no milk and no refined sugar or starches. Their teenagers and young adult do not have acne, if they stick to the original tribal diet.

3. Aché hunter/gatherers of Paraguay: a study by researchers from the Colorado State University in 2002 showed that sugar, wheat and other high-glycemic foods were missing in the diet of these native tribes. As a result they have no acne when they consume this type of diet, which is very similar to the Kitivan Islanders of Papua New Guinea.

4. Japan’s Okinawans when sticking to their original diet before 1970 had clear complexion and no pimples (acne). But as this link shows the McDonald’s and other fast foods with too much salt, too much sugar, wheat, deep fried and convenience foods entered the scene after 1970 and the acne rate went up to the American level.

5. The natives of the Purus Valley in Brazil: A dermatological examination of 9955 school children age 6 to 16 showed an acne incidence of only 2.7%. In contrast in Westernized countries the rate of acne is 60 to 80%. The diet in this region is again similar to the other groups already mentioned above.

6. Canadian Inuit before 1950 did not consume dairy products and were acne free. Since then there has been a steady increase of dairy products, soda, beef, and processed foods.

How acne develops

The medical term for pimples or acne is “acne vulgaris”. For years it has been postulated that hormones and medication can cause acne. According to Ref.1 there are several steps that work together in causing acne. The hair follicle and sebaceous gland work as one unit. Male hormones, called androgens play an important role in the development of acne, both in males and females. Testosterone in males is not only produced in testicles, but also in the skin itself. It gets converted by an enzyme, 5-alpha-reductase, into the much more active metabolite dihydrotestosterone. In individuals with hypersensitive receptors in the sebaceous gland this will cause blockage in the sebaceous gland duct and at the same time stimulate the sebaceous gland oil production leading to the formation of a keratotic plug. White heads and black heads are formed this way. Contributing factors are inflammatory substances that are caused by insulin release stimulated by sugar, wheat and starch intake. This stimulates IGF-1 receptors in the skin, which causes growth of the subcutaneous skin layers, which is pushing up from the layer below the skin, kinking the sebaceous gland duct and causing acne pustules (pimples) to form. A skin bacterium, called Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), is getting trapped in the pimple causing a local skin infection, which in turn can cause acne cysts and furuncles, particularly in males where there is a family history of acne. High cortisol levels from stress can also be a contributing factor in causing acne. Today’s teenagers are exposed to a lot of stresses from exams, competitive sports and peer pressures.

Females with PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) have higher androgen production from ovarian cysts, which results in acne as well.

Both male and female teenagers experience an androgen surge when puberty sets in. If the teenager avoids the additional insulin response, which comes from eating sugar, starch, grain and particularly from consuming wheat and wheat products, the plugging up of skin pores will not occur, meaning these teenagers will be acne free. Some teenagers are also sensitive to milk protein from milk and milk products. In sensitive people whey protein allergy causes the same insulin/skin IGF-1 response described above, which leads to blocking of skin pores. If there is no blockage in the hair follicle, the P. acnes bacteria will stay on the surface of the skin (these bacteria are part of the normal skin flora) and the sebaceous gland secretions flow unimpededly to the surface of the skin keeping  it naturally lubricated. These observations are further confirmed by a study from Malaysia in 2012 showing that a high glycemic load diet with milk and ice cream caused worsening of acne in teenagers of both sexes.

Pimples And Acne Can Be Caused By Food

Pimples And Acne Can Be Caused By Food

Treating acne correctly

A)   Conventional acne treatment

This is a thorny issue, because Big Pharma has a firm hand in the treatment of acne and they are supporting symptomatic treatment of acne rather than treating the cause. There are surface treatment modalities that are supposed to open the skin pores: peeling agents such as benzoyl peroxide. General practitioners often treat the infection with antibiotic pills (tetracycline or erythromycin), but this is not treating the cause, only the super infection that comes from the plugged up skin pores (stasis of sebaceous gland secretions). Another approach is topical application of antibiotic and peeling agent in combination (1% clindamycin and 5% benzoyl peroxide gel), which is applied twice daily (Ref.2). Resistant cases, usually the ones who have a family history of severe acne, have been treated by a skin specialist who has a special license to treat with isotretinoin (Accutane), a vitamin A derivative, which works in many cases, but which can have serious side effects. These include skin dryness, eye dryness, muscle and bone pains, headaches, liver enzyme abnormalities, and instability of mood including depression and causing birth defects in the fetus of a pregnant woman (Ref. 3). In 2009 the manufacturer stopped distributing the drug in the US, because of too many lawsuits regarding damages from the drug.

I am not saying you should ever take this toxic medication. What I am saying is that treating symptoms, but not the cause has led to peculiar drug manufacturing. This drug is now used to treat brain cancer and pancreatic cancer.

B)   Dietary approach to treat acne

There has been a renewed interest in the last 40 years to sort out the connection between dietary factors and acne.

The most straightforward treatment in my opinion is to modify what you eat.

A clinical trial from the University of Melbourne in 2007 showed that a low-glycemic diet reduced the acne lesions by 22% compared to a control group.

Two factors are clear: a low-glycemic diet produces fewer pimples, the stricter the low-glycemic diet is applied, the more effective the treatment will be. Up to 50% reduction in acne lesions were observed among patients with acne who adhered to a strict low-glycemic index diet in just 12 weeks. There is also evidence that milk and other dairy products can contribute to acne, which works through the same mechanism of IGF-1 stimulation mentioned above.

A US study from Boston showed a 22% increase in acne lesions with total milk consumption and increase of 44% after skim milk consumption.

Omega-3-fatty acid supplementation is useful for inflammatory acne in about 2/3 of the cases as this study showed. Here is a patient from this study who benefitted from omega-3 supplementation. The baseline image is seen with inflammatory acne lesions on his cheek. Only 12 weeks after taking 3 Grams of omega-3 supplementation daily his face looked much improved.

Conclusion

There is a lesson to be learnt from the analysis of the regions in the world where acne does not exist and from all these observational studies mentioned. Cutting out wheat, wheat products, grains, sugar, milk and milk products will lead to amazing results regarding acne prevention and improvement of patients who suffer from acne. We have been lulled into believing that medical science will give us a magic pill or magic potion that would solve our complexion problems. As mentioned above one of the “magic pills” (isotretinoin) is so toxic that it is now used for cancer treatments. All along we allowed the food industry to destroy our complexion by inducing an insulin and IGF-1 response that plugged up our skin pores. We can open them up by eliminating wheat and wheat products, sugar, high-glycemic foods as well as dairy products.

More information on acne: http://nethealthbook.com/dermatology-skin-disease/acne-vulgaris/

References

  1. Rakel: Integrative Medicine, 3rd ed., Saunders 2012. Chapter 73 : Acne Vulgaris and Acne Rosacea, by Sean H. Zager, MD
  2. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 7th ed., © 2009 Churchill Livingstone.
  3. Cleveland Clinic: Current Clinical Medicine, 2nd ed., © 2010 Saunders.

Last edited Nov. 7, 2014

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Feb
01
2006

Using Cell Phone Not Causing Brain Cancer

Of all the common brain tumors in adults, gliomas are the most common cancers. The prognosis for patients who are diagnosed with this type of brain cancer is extremely poor. Researchers are still attempting to pinpoint the reasons why these tumors are starting to grow, as they have a very distinct formation of cells and seem to be different from other brain tumors.
In the recent past, a lot of attention has been focused on the aspect of mobile telephones and a possible risk of gliomas and other brain tumors associated with their use. The energy of the radio frequency fields emitted by cell phones is thought to be insufficient to cause DNA damage to brain cells that lead to the formation of cancer cells.
Epidemiologists have done studies on users of mobile telephones and have not generally reported an increased brain cancer risk in overall or long-term use. Individual studies have found positive associations between high-grade astrocytoma (glioma) and phone use, brain tumor and phone use in rural areas and use of analogue mobile phones.
A large population based case-control study of 966 patients with glioma in the United Kingdom was designed to investigate cell phone use and the risk of brain tumors. It was part of the Interphone project, which is an international collaboration of 13 countries that concerns itself with the risks of cell phone use and tumors. The south east of England as well as four areas to the north and southern Scotland was the area studied with a total catchment, which amounts to 48.3% if the UK population of 28.4 million. Cases with intercranial tumors were ascertained from various sources, hospital departments (neurology and others) as well as cancer registries. The study was introduced as one to examine risks factors for brain cancers without stressing cell phone use. During the interview those who were mobile phone users were asked detailed questions on cell phone use, which included the recording of all makes and models of phone. Regular phone use was defined as a period of at least six months in the time frame of more than a year before the patient had been diagnosed with glioma.

Using Cell Phone Not Causing Brain Cancer

Using Cell Phone Not Causing Brain Cancer

When all the data had been evaluated, there was no association of risk with lifetime years of use, cumulative use or cumulative hours. There was also no association with cell phone use in urban or rural areas and high or low-grade gliomas. The use of analogue phones was also scrutinized and there were no significant odds ratios with any exposure.
This study has nearly twice as many cases as the previously largest study on glioma patients and the use of mobile phones. In addition it has a large amount of comprehensive and relevant collection data. The results are also consistent with findings from investigations of mobile phone use in the US, Denmark and Sweden. Overall there are no substantially raised risks of of glioma in the 10 years after first mobile phone use. Only future studies will be able to address longer latency periods.

More information on brain cancer: http://nethealthbook.com/cancer-overview/brain-cancer/

Reference: Brit. Med. Journal (doi: 10.1136/bmj.38720.687975.55; published January 20, 2006)

Last edited October 30, 2014