• Plant-Based Diet Pill that Helps with Weight Loss

    Plant-Based Diet Pill that Helps with Weight Loss

    Friday, May 28, 2021 was chosen to be the official release for a plant-based diet pill that helps with weight loss. The name is OxiTrim and the company that promotes the sale is the Applied Scientific Research Center in Colorado. Analysis of the claims of weight loss The two effective ingredients in OxiTrim are … [Read More...]

  • Anti-Viral Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) Can Treat Covid-19 Successfully

    Anti-Viral Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) Can Treat Covid-19 Successfully

    A German research team wanted to test whether an anti-viral photodynamic therapy (PDT) can treat Covid-19 successfully. They went to Tehran during the first Covid-19 peak in 2020 and did the following experiment. All patients of the clinical trial were in the early stage of Covid-19. The researchers compared 20 … [Read More...]

  • Research about Side Effects of the AstraZeneca Vaccine

    Research about Side Effects of the AstraZeneca Vaccine

    Research about side effects of the AstraZeneca vaccine revealed some worrisome facts. An article that appeared in the German “Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung” explained that people should not worry about the vaccine. The heading of the article was:” People no longer have to be afraid of the AstraZeneca-Vaccine.” … [Read More...]

  • The Power of a Placebo

    The Power of a Placebo

    A publication in Nature Communications investigated the power of a placebo. Specifically, they wanted to know whether there is a difference between a hidden and a known placebo. With a hidden placebo the patient is unaware whether a pill is a placebo pill or a real medication. With a non-deceptive or known placebo, … [Read More...]

  • Which are the Most and Least Contaminated Crops

    Which are the Most and Least Contaminated Crops

    View Post Farmers are spraying many crops with pesticides, so which are the most and least contaminated crops? Recently, the Environmental Working Group's 2021 Shopper's Guide to Pesticides in Produce was published. The various fruit and vegetables are also called the “dirty dozen”. You see from this readily that … [Read More...]

  • Pollen Allergies Make Covid-19 Infection Rates Worse

    Pollen Allergies Make Covid-19 Infection Rates Worse

    A recent study showed that pollen allergies make Covid-19 infection rates worse. This was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) in March 2021. The study determined that airborne pollen exposure enhances susceptibility to respiratory viral infections. Specifically, this includes … [Read More...]

    Jun
    12
    2021

    Plant-Based Diet Pill that Helps with Weight Loss

    Friday, May 28, 2021 was chosen to be the official release for a plant-based diet pill that helps with weight loss. The name is OxiTrim and the company that promotes the sale is the Applied Scientific Research Center in Colorado.

    Analysis of the claims of weight loss

    The two effective ingredients in OxiTrim are the herbs, Sphaeranthus indicus and Garcinia mangostana. The weight loss effect of OxiTrim is based on two medical studies, one in 2013 and one in 2016 (see below). It was done to prove the effectiveness of a previously released weight loss supplement with the name of Meratrim.

    Both of these herbs were previously found to be effective with regard to weight loss. Sphaeranthus indicus has many pharmacological properties. Among them was a lipid lowering effect as it decreased the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL significantly, but not HDL cholesterol. It also had an anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effectGarcinia mangostana is another herb with medicinal properties. The main effect is an anti-inflammatory action. Various xanthones were isolated from the herb with the pharmacological properties of the plant. The researchers did not mention weight loss regarding the tests on the herb alone.

    Study regarding the effectiveness of Meratrim

    The original study to prove that Meratrim was effective, was published in May of 2013. 60 obese patients with a body mass index of between 30 and 40 entered the study. Half of the participants received 400 mg of the herbal supplements twice per day. The other half received an identical looking placebo twice per day. Both groups ate a diet with 2000 kcal per day. The placebo group and the experimental group both also walked 30 minutes per day 5 times per week.

    Here are the results of the 8-week clinical trial

    Weight loss: 3.74 kg for the experimental group vs. 1.61 for the placebo group.
    Waist circumference: There was a 5.44 cm bigger reduction of the waist circumference of the herbal group vs. the placebo group. The researchers concluded that there was a significantly greater weight and waist circumference loss in the herbal experimental group vs. the placebo group.

    Other study showing the effectiveness of Meratrim

    The second study was published on Aug 24, 2016 and consisted of 60 participants initially. 57 of them completed the study, which went on for 16 weeks. The mean BMI was 28.3 kg/m2 at the beginning of the study.

    The diet and exercise conditions were the same as in the 2013 study. Both groups ate a diet with 2000 kcal per day. The placebo group and the experimental group both also walked 30 minutes per day 5 times per week. The experimental group received 400 mg of Meratrim twice per day. The placebo group received 400 mg of an identical looking placebo pill twice per day. The results of this study were as follows.

    Body weight reduction

    5.09 kg for the experimental group vs. 1.1 kg for the placebo group.

    Reduction of BMI

    1.91 for the Meratrim group versus 0.43 for the placebo group.

    Waist reduction

    9.97 cm for the experimental group vs. 3.71 cm for the placebo group.

    Hip circumference reduction

    10.38 cm in the Meratrim group vs. 5.11 cm for the placebo group.

    Effect of Meratrim on blood values

    There were also significant reductions of the LDL cholesterol, the total cholesterol and the triglycerides as follows. Serum LDL showed a reduction of 14.79 mg/dL vs. 6.25 mg/dL for the placebo group.  The total cholesterol showed a reduction of 20.0 mg/dL vs. an increase of 0.75 mg/dL for the placebo group. Triglycerides had a reduction of 43.62 mg/dL vs. a reduction of 13.68 for the placebo group. The researchers did not find any adverse effects of the supplement during the study. The researchers concluded that Meratrim is a well-tolerated supplement. It also is an effective weight control supplement for healthy overweight people. I discussed in the past that fat metabolizes into water with weight loss.

    OxiTrim versus Meratrim

    The active ingredients of OxiTrim are the same as for Meratrim. But OxiTrim contains inactive ingredients like Ashwagandha and vitamin D3 in addition. Researchers never tested OxiTrim scientifically. On the other hand, Meratrim has undergone at least two clinical tests as described above. One included obese people and the second one overweight people.

    Plant-Based Diet Pill that Helps with Weight Loss

    Plant-Based Diet Pill that Helps with Weight Loss

    Conclusion regarding plant-based diet pill that helps with weight loss

    The Applied Scientific Research Center in Colorado is marketing a “novel” diet pill, OxiTrim for weight loss. However, the active ingredients, which are two plant products are also present in Meratrim, a well-researched dietary supplement. OxiTrim has a price tag of abut 60 USD for 1 month supply. OxiTrim is not showing any better results than Meratrim, which costs only 27 USD per month. The Applied Scientific Research Center in Colorado just added inert materials to the active ingredients, the herbs Sphaeranthus Indicus and Garcinia mangostana. The active ingredients of both supplements are the same. If you are overweight and want to shed a few pounds , you better buy Meratrim. Researchers undertook clinical trials with Meratrim and it is significantly less expensive.

    May
    29
    2021

    Anti-Viral Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) Can Treat Covid-19 Successfully

    A German research team wanted to test whether an anti-viral photodynamic therapy (PDT) can treat Covid-19 successfully. They went to Tehran during the first Covid-19 peak in 2020 and did the following experiment.

    All patients of the clinical trial were in the early stage of Covid-19. The researchers compared 20 patients (experimental group who had photodynamic therapy) with 20 patients that served as a control.

    Results of the study

    The results were as follows (initial symptoms compared to 5 days later):

    • 18 patients had a high fever, but 5 days after PDT they were afebrile
    • 17 patients had a severe cough; after 5 days of PDT only 6 patients did
    • There were 19 patients initially with breathing problems. After 5 days of PDT only 5 patients still had acute breathing problems.
    • Less severe symptoms like headaches, sleep disturbance and fatigue initially improved rapidly with PDT in about half of the patients.

    It is interesting to note that none of the control group patients showed signs of improvements of the Covid-19 symptoms. Two patients of the control group had to be transferred into the ICU ward of a hospital. None of the control patients showed a reduction of the viral load.

    PCR testing to verify effectiveness of anti-viral photodynamic therapy

    A highly specific and sensitive polymerase chain reaction with the name QPCR determines the viral RNA in the subject. The researchers measured the QPCR daily in every subject. On day 1 only 8 patients had a QPCR value of 30 or more. In contrast, on day 5 there were 14 subjects who tested negative for the SARS-CoV-2 virus and 5 patients had a QPCR value of more than 30. A value of more than 30 was considered to indicate a low virus concentration. Expressed in another way, 95% of 20 patients were cured of Covid-19, while 100% of the control group deteriorated because of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

    How does the antiviral phototherapy work?

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has shown to be effective in the past against bacteria, parasites and viruses. An important application in transfusion medicine is the inactivation of viruses and bacteria in stored red blood cell units. The laboratory physician adds a small amount of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) to red blood cell units. Treatment with ultraviolet light for a short period follows, which inactivates viruses and bacteria. Vitamin B2 is harmless and does not need removal.

    The same technique was effective to remove Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from plasma products.

    Researchers from the Colorado State University combined riboflavin and UV radiation to clear the SAARS-CoV-2 virus from plasma and platelets successfully.

    Activation of riboflavin by UV light and blue light kills the SARS-CoV-2 virus

    Riboflavin, which also goes by the name vitamin B2, is a photosensitizer. The light absorption of riboflavin is in the 375 nm (UVA light) and in the 450 nm (blue light) range. Dr. Weber, an internist and engineer from Germany showed that you can use UVA light and blue light to activate riboflavin. Laser light stimulation of riboflavin releases reactive oxygen species (ROS), which damages the virus proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. The patient takes 100 mg of riboflavin-5-phosphate orally. In addition, the patient also sprays a riboflavin solution to the inside of the nose and on the tongue.

    Laser applicators cause riboflavin to release oxygen species (ROS)

    Special laser applicators for the nose and for the mouth/throat produce a mix of UVA and blue laser light. This stimulates riboflavin from the blood in these regions to release reactive oxygen species. In addition, the patient applies a special laser watch (the name of it is “Laser Watch Spectra”) to the volar aspect of the wrist. This watch is sold by Weber Medical Systems GmbH, Germany. The location of the ulnar and radial arteries is at the volar aspect of the wrist. When the wrist watch is applied there, the riboflavin in the blood stream of the arteries releases oxygen species (ROS). This in turn kills the Covid-19 coronavirus.

    Antiviral phototherapy to eradicate the SARS-CoV-2 virus in humans

    A German research team under Dr. Weber went to Tehran, Persia during the first SARS-CoV-2 virus epidemic. They did a pilot study to show that photodynamic therapy can treat Covid-19 successfully. They divided 40 confirmed Covid-19 patients in an early stage into two groups. 20 patients were the treatment group and the other 20 patients made up the control. As already discussed before there were striking differences in the treatment group versus the control group. The procedure was simple.

    Treatment regimen

    First the patient takes 100 mg of vitamin B2 (as Roboflavin-5-phosphate). 15 to 30 minutes later vitamin B2 is circulating in the blood. The patient now attaches the laser wrist watch to one of the wrists and the mouth/throat applicator for 1 hour. The next application is a nose applicator for 1 hour. This completes the laser treatment for the day. The patients received the same treatment 5 days in a row. As the tables of the first link showed the treatment group experienced significant healing from Covid-19. The control group did not, but rather deteriorated.

    Anti-Viral Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) Can Treat Covid-19 Successfully

    Anti-Viral Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) Can Treat Covid-19 Successfully

    Conclusion

    A combined UVA laser and a blue laser treatment matching the light absorption of riboflavin cured 95% of Covid-19 patients. A German research group under Dr. Weber went to Tehran, Persia in the middle of the first Covid-19 wave. An experimental group received laser treatment of the nasal passages and the tongue and throat for 1 hour each. In addition, the researchers treated the ulnar and radial arteries with UVA and blue laser light as well. This treated any coronaviruses that leaked into the general circulation.

    Cure of Covid-19 in 5 days

    After only 5 days of this therapy there was a 95% cure of Covid-19. In contrast, 100% of the control group without laser treatment remained very symptomatic. Two patients of the control group required transfer into the ICU. None of the control patients showed a reduction of the viral load while 95% of the treatment group did. In the meantime, the researchers repeated the experiment with 50 patients in each group and obtained the same result (personal communication from Dr. Weber).

    This is the first time that a research group was able to report a cure for Covid-19.

    May
    15
    2021

    Research about Side Effects of the AstraZeneca Vaccine

    Research about side effects of the AstraZeneca vaccine revealed some worrisome facts. An article that appeared in the German “Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung” explained that people should not worry about the vaccine.

    The heading of the article was:” People no longer have to be afraid of the AstraZeneca-Vaccine.” But subsequently it describes how vaccinating with the AstraZeneca vaccine against Covid-19 developed blood clots in some people. Researchers at the University of Greifswald examined 7 cases where following the vaccine blood clots developed.  Dr. Andreas Greinacher is Head of the department of Transfusion Medicine in Greifswald, Germany. He said that blood clots are extremely rare following vaccinations. The 7 people who did form clots in sinuses (big vein structures) of the brain had all antibodies against platelets. Normally platelets help with hemostasis for wounds, but when specific antibodies bind to platelets, they can cause blood clots.

    Research about side effects of the AstraZeneca vaccine identified blood clots as a problem

    The Greifswald medical team said that they know how to treat this blood clot condition when it occurs. They are using blood clot dissolving medication like heparin and warfarin to dissolve the clots. But if this treatment is not instituted right away, the patient could get a stroke or pulmonary emboli, which is a life-threatening condition. Normal minor side effects of the vaccine occur on the first and second day after the vaccination. If blood clots appear in brain veins, symptoms of severe headaches develop on day 4 or 5 following the vaccination. Other patients might develop a painful leg due to a blood clot in the leg veins. If this should happen, the patient must present immediately at the emergency department of a hospital. Physicians will start anticoagulation therapy right away. The 7 patients who developed blood clots did so between day 5 and 14 following the AstraZeneca vaccination.

    European decision to reinstate the AstraZeneca vaccine

    The European Medical Agency stated that the benefits would outweigh the risks of the AstraZeneca vaccine. They recommended reinstatement of vaccinations with the vaccine. However, there remain problems with the vaccine. First, the effectiveness of the vaccine was initially determined to be 79%, but retesting showed it is only 76%. Next the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut that monitors complications of medical procedures in all of Germany determined 31 cases of blood clots. 9 patients died from them.

    Interestingly, the EMA has reversed their opinion about the AstraZeneca vaccine on April 6, 2021 as can be seen from this press statement. Now they are saying that there is a clear association between the vaccine and rare blood clots in the brain.

    In the US the CDC and FDA have not approved the AstraZeneca vaccine. The CDC also said that the Johnson-Johnson’s vaccine should be put on hold until a re-examination of the blood clot issue is clarified.

    Discussion

    The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are pure RNA vaccines that are known to have very few complication rates. Researchers stated that only very few people develop clots in their brain or leg veins. They also stated that the majority of people benefit from the AstraZeneca vaccine. This is a simplification. There are other vaccines that doctors can use as alternatives that do not produce clots. It would be better to ask why there is clot formation with the AstraZeneca Vaccine!

    The AstraZeneca vaccine contains a DNA adenovirus

    The AstraZeneca vaccine contains remnants of a DNA virus, namely an adenovirus. Researchers added the gene for the coronavirus spike protein to the DNA adenovirus.

    The DNA shell from the adenovirus helps to protect the vaccine at fridge temperatures, which increases the shelf life of the vaccine. But as with other DNA vaccines there are more complications possible. This question was reviewed here already 10 years ago.

    In the end we are still faced with RNA vaccines against Coved-19 that work, versus a DNA vaccine that has possible complications with blood clots. I for one would not accept anything else but an RNA vaccine that does not have the clot formation side effect. I feel that the authorities should stop the AstraZeneca vaccine for now. The researchers should carry out further studies to see whether improvements can make the vaccine safer.

    Research about Side Effects of the AstraZeneca Vaccine

    Research about Side Effects of the AstraZeneca Vaccine

    Conclusion

    The AstraZeneca vaccine contains a deactivated DNA adenovirus. Researchers added the gene for the coronavirus spike protein to the adenovirus. This is a completely different approach from the RNA vaccines that do not have these side effects. The fact that some patients developed blood clots is likely explainable on the grounds that they received a DNA vaccine. In my opinion the authorities released the AstraZeneca vaccine prematurely. They should put a hold on this vaccine until scientists can develop improvements to the vaccine. In the meantime, people should receive the safer RNA vaccines.

    To continue vaccinating with AstraZeneca vaccine is unacceptable

    I disagree that governments allow a vaccine that has serious complication rates for which doctors offer anticoagulation therapy. It is only a matter of time that a few deaths occur, because the blood clots escaped diagnosis. The company has now renamed the vaccine as Vaxzevria. This seems to be a move of AstraZeneca to move away from the complications of the AstraZeneca vaccine. This does nothing to help solve the problem with the blood clots that don’t only occur “in a few cases”. We are dealing with a serious side effect, and you should ask yourself the question, whether it is worth the risk.

    May
    01
    2021

    The Power of a Placebo

    A publication in Nature Communications investigated the power of a placebo. Specifically, they wanted to know whether there is a difference between a hidden and a known placebo. With a hidden placebo the patient is unaware whether a pill is a placebo pill or a real medication. With a non-deceptive or known placebo, the patient knows it is a placebo. In this study the investigators wanted to know whether a non-deceptive placebo still can have an effect. As we shall see below the answer is: yes, non-deceptive placebos still have an effect. This was also summarized in this review.

    Literature review

    The authors reviewed the literature about placebo effects. They found 26 studies that reported positive effects with placebos, but they were mostly self-reporting. However, 8 studies measured objective markers. Only one study found improvement with a placebo therapy, namely by performing a task. The researchers also learnt that physical conditions do not respond to a placebo therapy. Examples of such physical conditions are wound healing, healing of fractures or appendicitis requiring surgery. In contrast, the conditions responding to either hidden placebo or non-deceptive placebo involved emotional distress. This was what the subsequent experiments concentrated on.

    The experiments

    62 men and women participated in experiment 1. Experiment 2 had a nonclinical sample from another large university in the Midwest.  Only females were accepted for experiment 2. The investigators wanted no sex differences in brain structure, brain formation and emotion processing.

    The first experiment

    For the first experiment the researchers recruited 62 healthy male and female students between the ages of 18 and 30. They were from two universities, namely the Michigan State University and the University of Michigan. Before the experiment started the hidden placebo group read an article about pain treatment. They were also given nasal placebo drops with the remark that this would help making the measurements more accurate. The known placebo group read another article that explained how placebos work. The text included a passage that explained that placebos work even in the case where the person knew they were a placebo. The same nasal drops were given with the remark that there was no active ingredient in it, but it “would help reduce their negative emotional reactions to viewing distressing images if they believed it would. “

    Results of first experiment

    The researchers asked participants to view a series of 20 images with negative and cruel content. The subjects also viewed 10 images that were neutral in content. The participants viewed each image for a few seconds, then the investigators asked how they felt on a scale of 1-9. The group who knew that the nasal spray was a placebo felt less negative after viewing the distressing images compared to the other group.

    The second experiment

    In the second experiment the researchers showed a mixed sequence of neutral and distressing images to female subjects. The purpose was to measure the brain activity as a result of invoking various feelings. The investigators employed a modified continuous electroencephalography (EEG) recording of the brain activity to measure the processing of feelings. They showed a neutral screen between the negative and neutral images and asked the participants to clear their mind. The researchers scanned the brain activity at two time points. The first point measured the patient’s immediate reaction. The second point measured the brain activity at the end of emotional processing and understanding of the image. As discussed below this experiment showed the power of the placebo.

    Results of the second experiment

    There was no difference of the known placebo group and the control group (the deceptive placebo group) with regard to the initial reaction to the images. However, the placebo group showed less activity in the second period. The researchers monitored the brain activity with a modified EEG and in comparison to the control group. According to the authors the known placebo group was able to process their emotional response to the distress better than the control group.

    The authors attempted to correct for confounding variables.  In the process they found out that those who did not believe in the power of a placebo still reacted the same way as the placebo group did. The researchers performed the second experiment only on women as the brains and processing modes are sex-specific. They did not want to introduce confounding variables unwittingly. At this point we do not know how males as a group react in similar experiments.

    "The

    Conclusion

    With a hidden placebo the patient is unaware whether a pill is a placebo pill or a real medication. With a non-deceptive or known placebo, the patient knows it is a placebo. In a study with two experiments the investigators wanted to know whether a non-deceptive placebo still can have an effect. The result of the experiments showed that non-deceptive placebos still have an effect. The proof for his was with placebo nasal drops. The subjects viewed 20 upsetting images and subsequently 10 neutral images. They scored on a scale of 1-9 how upset they felt about the distressing images. The group who knew that the nasal spray was a placebo felt less negative after viewing the distressing images in comparison to the other group.

    Placebo helps to process emotional response better than control group

    In the second experiment investigators employed a modified continuous electroencephalography (EEG) recording of the brain activity to measure the processing of feelings. The investigators showed alternating upsetting images and neutral images to a female group of students. According to the authors the non-deceptive placebo group was able to process their emotional response to the distress better than the control group. This showed the power of the placebo. The authors concluded that these results may help develop new treatment plans for depression, emotional disorders and emotional distress.

    Apr
    17
    2021

    Which are the Most and Least Contaminated Crops

    View Post

    Farmers are spraying many crops with pesticides, so which are the most and least contaminated crops? Recently, the Environmental Working Group’s 2021 Shopper’s Guide to Pesticides in Produce was published. The various fruit and vegetables are also called the “dirty dozen”. You see from this readily that the most contaminated crops are strawberries, followed by spinach and kale, collard and mustard greens. Nectarines, apples and grapes are next followed by cherries, peaches and pears. The list is made complete by bell and hot peppers, celery and tomatoes.

    Safety of food

    This means that it is not safe to eat any of these fruit and vegetables from regular crops, as they are all contaminated by pesticides. It is advisable to exchange these crops and buy the organic version of each instead. This is easy to do, and I have done this for years. If you have a garden or access to a community garden, you can also grow some of them yourself.

    What pesticides do in the body

    People can acquire pesticides orally as contamination of crops. But people can absorb them as well by inhalation or through the skin. People affected by pesticides may complain about a sore throat, a cough, eye and skin irritation. They also may develop a headache, loss of consciousness, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. In the worst case there can be profound weakness, seizures and death.

    You may think:” Why worry? There is probably just a little bit left, and this surely will not harm me.” But make no mistake: many of the pesticides are hormone disruptors, and that “little bit” does matter!

    Action of hormone disruptors

    Hormone disruptors may have a molecular structure similar to estrogen. As a result, laboratory analysis may show smaller semen counts in males causing infertility.  Women can develop cysts in the ovaries, menstrual bleeding abnormalities and breast cancer. With pregnancy pesticides can cause early miscarriages. In addition, women can also have fertility problems as a result of hormone disruptors.

    A French study showed that consumption of organic food reduces cancer risk

    One way to find out what pesticides (insecticides) are doing to the body is to do a comparative study. In France researchers compared cancer rates between people who consumed organic food and others who ate regular food (treated with pesticides). Researchers recruited 68,946 French adults for the study. More than ¾ of the study population were women in their mid 40’s. Researchers divided these subjects into 4 groups depending on how many of 16 organic food groups they were consuming.

    Details of the French study (organic food intake versus non-organic food intake)

    First of all, the type of foods included fruit and vegetables, ready-to-eat meals, meat and fish, vegetable oils and condiments, dietary supplements and other products. Also, the investigators followed this population for an average of 4 ½ years. Finally, during that time 1,340 cancers developed. 459 breast cancers occurred, 180 prostate cancers, 135 skin cancers, 99 colorectal cancers and 47 non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

    Those who ate the most organic food developed 25% less cancer on average. When it came to Hodgkin’s lymphoma, organic food consumers developed 73% less of it than people on regular food. Postmenopausal breast cancer was 21% less frequent among those who had the highest amount of organic food.

    The least contaminated fruit and vegetables

    The Environmental Working Group’s 2021 Shopper’s Guide for the least contaminated fruit and vegetables lists the following. Avocados, sweet corn, pineapples and onions. Papayas, frozen sweet peas, eggplant, asparagus, broccoli and cabbage are next. Finally, kiwifruit, cauliflower, mushrooms, honeydew and cantaloupe complete the list of the least contaminated crops. This means that you can buy these crops without concern whether or not you should buy the organic version. It is good to know what is acceptable and what you need to avoid by buying the organic version.

    GMO foods and Roundup

    It is interesting that there is no law in the US and in Canada that GMO foods should have a label that identifies crops with genetic modifications. This is changing rapidly as people realize that in many countries of Europe all GMO foods require labeling. Here is a publication that shows that the GMO labeling campaign is gaining momentum.

    Genetically modified corn and soy contains the Bt toxin; it has been found in babies as mentioned in this article. Bt toxin damages the small bowel (the ileum) through Cry1Ab (the protein produced in genetically modified corn and soy). This in turn disables the absorption of vitamin B12. We know that this causes anemia. Historically the cause of pernicious anemia was due to a lack of vitamin B12 absorption.

    Effects of Roundup

    In a publication dated April 2013 Drs. Anthony Samsel and Stephanie Seneff discuss the effects of Roundup. They noticed that glyphosate inhibits the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the liver. This is a crucial detoxification enzyme complex. When toxicity studies of glyphosate in mammals emerged, this was not common knowledge. The CYP enzymes in the liver are important to metabolize and eliminate estrogens and also help to detoxify xenobiotics, which are estrogen-like substances (residues from insecticides).

    Glyphosate amplifies the effect of environmental toxins

    Thus glyphosate (=” Roundup”) amplifies the damaging effect of environmental toxins and chemical residues from non-organic food that we eat. Researchers have shown a build-up of estrogens and xenoestrogens that are responsible for the development of many cancers (atypical Hodgkin’s lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, colon cancer etc.). Based on this data it makes sense to switch to as much organic food as you can afford. Organic food does not contain Roundup. For the sake of your health at least stay away from the “dirty dozen”!

    Which are the Most and Least Contaminated Crops

    Which are the Most and Least Contaminated Crops

    Conclusion

    The poisoning of the food chain is a real concern. As far as pesticides (insecticides) are concerned the Environmental Working Group’s Shopper’s Guide to Pesticides in Produce has been extremely useful. They publish a yearly guide of the “dirty dozen”, but also of the least contaminated fruit and vegetables. Regular crops with pesticide residues can cause infertility in both men and women. They also can cause early miscarriages in pregnant women. Generally speaking, they can cause headaches, loss of consciousness, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. In the worst case there can be profound weakness, seizures and death. A French study showed that subjects on organic food developed 25% less cancer on average. When it came to Hodgkin’s lymphoma, organic food consumers developed 73% less of it than people on regular food. Postmenopausal breast cancer was 21% less frequent among those who had the highest amount of organic food.

    The above contains parts from this blog.

    Apr
    03
    2021

    Pollen Allergies Make Covid-19 Infection Rates Worse

    A recent study showed that pollen allergies make Covid-19 infection rates worse. This was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) in March 2021.

    The study determined that airborne pollen exposure enhances susceptibility to respiratory viral infections. Specifically, this includes SARS-CoV-2 infections as well. There were 130 test sites in 31 countries across 5 continents where measurements were made. Pollen concentration, air humidity and temperature, population density and lockdown effects on Covid-19 figures were measured. In countries with high pollen counts, high humidity and higher temperatures the Covid-19 rates were up to 44% higher than in countries with low pollen counts and colder climates.

    PNAS study in more detail

    In the following I am discussing the PNAS study in more detail. The SARS-CoV virus from the SARS epidemic in 2002 and the present SARS-CoV-2 virus are both capable to suppress the body’s interferon response to either virus. Additionally, there are intracellular proteins with the name “inflammasomes”, which the SARS-CoV-2 virus activates. With excessive activation this causes a cytokine storm, where inflammation spreads through the whole body. In the blood this leads to disseminated coagulopathy with multi organ failures. In the lungs severe acute respiratory syndrome occurs with severe viral pneumonia. On average mortality is 3.4%.

    Tree and weed pollen can weaken the immune response

    A study from South Korea examined what happens with exposure in asthmatic and allergic school-aged children to tree and weed pollen. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091674919311856.

    Allergic reactions make allergic children more prone to rhinovirus infections by reducing interferon in the blood. In addition, allergic reactions stimulate inflammasomes. When the SARS-CoV-2 virus affects an allergic child, both interferon depletion and excessive inflammasome activation make Covid-19 much more severe than in a child without allergies.

    Warm spell in the Northern Hemisphere

    On March 12, 2020 the WHO announced the Covid-19 pandemic when over 33% of the world’s countries were affected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, at the same time there was a large-scale warm spell across the Northern Hemisphere with tree pollens being distributed across the same regions. This resulted in an exponential increase of Covid-19 cases. The researchers determined that the rates of Covid-19 infections were highest in areas where there was a high tree pollen count, crowding of people and high humidity/temperatures. The researchers used data from 248 airborne pollen monitoring sites in 31 countries. The highest exponential growth rates of Covid-19 occurred in the countries with the highest pollen counts. 6 out of 8 countries studied with regard to high pollen counts showed a significant correlation with regard to Covid-19 infections in excess to just person-to person virus transmission.

    Population density and lockdown affecting daily SARS-CoV-2 virus rate

    Some countries had a complete lockdown when rates of infection were high. This reduced transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus by 50%. Those countries with only a partial lockdown still experienced a significant reduction of infection rates. Rural areas had significantly less daily SARS-CoV-2 virus rates compared to very densely populated cities.

    The researchers observed the following:

    • There was a lag effect of 4 days between the increase of pollen concentration in the air and infection increase with the SARS-CoV-2 virus
    • Pollens in the air caused infection rates of SARS-CoV-2 to rise by 10 to 30%, but in some high pollen areas even up to 44%.
    • Lockdowns reduced infection rates of SARS-CoV-2 by 50%
    • Higher environmental temperatures and higher humidity of the air also increased infection rates of SARS-CoV-2, although this may have occurred indirectly by increasing the pollen count in the air

    Discussion

    1. The authors added a thorough discussion of the multiple factors regarding the increase of the infection rate of Covid-19 in 2020. They pointed out that climatic factors, air pollutants, or pollen, often exert their effects at the same time. They quantitated the contribution of the pollen count in the air easily. In contrast, pollution and climatic factors were not predictable in their effects.
    2. The infection rate of the SARS-CoV-2 virus always lagged behind the increase in pollen count by 4 days. The researchers observed this in all those countries where increasing pollen counts were a significant factor.
    3. The epithelial lining of the nasal cavity is the target of inhaled pollen. The researchers cited several publications regarding reduced interferon production as a result of exposure to pollens in the nasal mucous membranes. This leaves the immune system with a weakness, which the SARS-CoV-2 virus exploits. Recently specialists discussed the use of intravenous interferon to interrupt the cytokine storm caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

    Pollen Allergies Make Covid-19 Infection Rates Worse

    Pollen Allergies Make Covid-19 Infection Rates Worse

    Conclusion

    In a recent publication researchers showed that pollen allergies make Covid-19 infection rates worse. The investigators had 130 test sites in 31 countries across 5 continents where they took measurements. They measured pollen concentration, air humidity, temperature, population density and lockdown effects on Covid-19 figures. In March of 2020 there was a warming trend in the Northern Hemisphere. This caused pollen counts to significantly rise in many countries. The result was that the mucous membranes in the nasal cavity weakened. This made it easier for the SARS-CoV-2 virus to multiply and invade. A lag period of 4 days occurred between the rise of the pollen count and the start of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The authors recommend that those who react to pollens in the air should wear pollen filtering masks in the spring season. This minimizes the danger of getting viral infections including SARS-CoV-2 infections following pollen exposure.

    Mar
    06
    2021

    Plastics are Harmful to Babies’ Brains

    Over the years research showed that plastics are harmful to babies’ brains. Companies that make plastic products use a chemical family of compounds, the phthalates. The reason is that they soften the plastic materials and in other instances harden them. February 18, 2021 a study appeared online by a commission that suggests to eliminate phthalates altogether.

    CNN summarized the evidence of what phthalates do to the brain of the unborn late in pregnancy and in early childhood.

    Exposure to phthalates

    Phthalates are also called the “everywhere chemical”.  Researchers found them in food and personal care items, in the car and in the home. You find them in food packaging, older vinyl flooring, in detergents, clothing and shower curtains.  Phthalates are in rain and stain-resistant products, but also in hair spray, shampoos, soap and nail polish. They make fragrances last longer. Phthalates must be listed as part of the ingredient list except when they are in use for fragrances. In that instance the FDA allows up to 20% of the product content to consist of phthalates and the manufacturer can label them only as “fragrances”. This is still a big loophole.

    Effects of phthalates on the young brain

    The recent review of phthalates as neurotoxins has taken into consideration more than 30 studies on prenatal exposure. Different tests assessed cognitive development in young children. The strongest association between phthalate exposure and a decline in cognitive function was found with hyperactivity, emotional problems, delinquent behaviors, other signs of attention deficit disorders (ADHD), defiance and aggression. One study examined children from mothers who had high phthalate levels in their blood in the last trimester. The researchers compared these children to children from mothers whose phthalate levels were normal at the end of their pregnancy. The risk was 3-fold higher to develop ADHD in the children of mothers with high phthalate levels.

    Another study showed that when women in the latter part of their pregnancy had higher phthalate levels, the children at the age of 7 were subsequently found to have an average IQ level 7 points less than controls.

    Elimination of phthalates from the body

    Unlike heavy metals that tend to accumulate in the body, the kidneys and the liver eliminate phthalates fast through urine and bile. Phthalates have much shorter biological half-lives compared to heavy metals that stay in the body for decades. David Bellinger is a professor of neurology and psychology at Boston Children’s Hospital. He said that once there is phthalate exposure to the baby’s brain in the womb, permanent damage sets in. The authors of the review paper call for a total ban of phthalates. This they say prevents high-risk people from getting exposure to products that harmed them in the past. The high-risk people are women of reproductive age, pregnant women, infants and children.

    Manufacturer’s behavioral change

    Lead author Stephanie Engel is a professor of epidemiology at the University of North Carolina. She is teaching at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health. She said: “We’re exposed to multiple phthalates, and that mixture can come within a single product, but also across multiple products that people are exposed to in a day. The reality is that we need to think of phthalates as a class because that’s how people are exposed to them.” She added that it is possible to remove an entire class of phthalates. She went on to say that the industry is showing us already that it is possible to do that.

    Products are appearing on the market that are phthalate-free

    For instance, Apple has removed phthalates as a class from almost all products. CVS and Home Depot have removed phthalates from personal care and beauty products, household products and vinyl flooring.  Another success story was the removal of BPA (Bisphenol A) from baby bottles and sippy cups. The organization “angry moms” was responsible for this action. Professor Engel suggested that the public at large needs to show what they believe in by only buying products that do not contain phthalates. This economic engine will shift the balance and make manufacturers produce phthalate-free products.

    Chemicals allowed in food and food packaging

    There are over 10,000 chemicals that the FDA has allowed to be in food and food packaging. Now there is a petition in front of the FDA, that asks them to re-review interactions of various chemicals in food and food packaging. Plastics, phthalates, perfluoroalkyl substances and many other substances we need to consider to eliminate. A tablecloth or new carpet do not have to be totally stain repellent. And if you eat out and have leftover food you can bring along a clean glass container where your leftover food food goes in. This gets rid of another Styrofoam container or coated paper container. I mentioned toxins in the bathroom in this blog before.

    Plastics are Harmful to Babies’ Brains

    Plastics are Harmful to Babies’ Brains

    Conclusion

    Industries use phthalates a lot. It is a chemical group of substances that coat food containers, make plastic soft, are in use with vinyl flooring and many other applications. They are even present in personal care, beauty products and household products. The problem is that adults can eliminate these substances very quickly in urine and bile (in the stool). But the fetus and newborns are very sensitive with regard to their brain development. Young kidneys and young livers are slower to eliminate phthalates from the body.

    Damage to the brain of the fetus late in pregnancy

    A publication in the American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) has published an article on phthalates and other chemicals in our food chain and the environment. They pointed out that with exposure to phthalates in the late pregnancy leads to damage of the brain in the fetus. This leads to a permanent IQ loss, which a research group measured at the age of 7. A normal control group without exposure to phthalates in comparison to a group with exposure to phthalates showed a loss of 7 points on the IQ scale.

    Some companies are starting to produce phthalate-free products

    Fortunately, several manufacturers like Apple, CVS and Home Depot have started to produce items without phthalates. The consumer needs to show with their wallets that we will only buy phthalate-free products. This likely will turn the tide at the manufacturing level.

    Feb
    20
    2021

    Two Articles Showed that Fish Oil Reduces Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality

    Recently two articles showed that fish oil reduces cardiovascular disease and mortality.

    British study recording the effects of fish oil over 10 years

    For one thing, the British Medical Journal published an article comparing people who supplemented with fish oil with people who did not. In this case, the ones who supplemented had a lower risk of mortality and had lower cardiovascular disease than the control group. In brief, 427,678 subjects were enrolled in this British study between 2006 and 2010. Questionnaires at the beginning of the study revealed how many capsules of fish oil the subjects consumed. Hospital records and death certificates provided information about cardiovascular disease mortality at the end of 2018. Altogether, 31% of the subjects said that they were taking fish oil supplements regularly.

    In short, here are the results of the study showing what fish oil did.

    • 7% lower cardiovascular events
    • 16% lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality
    • 20% lower mortality risk from heart attacks
    • 13% lower risk of death from any cause (when compared to people who did not use fish oil)

    Discussion

    Given these points, the authors stated that it was the omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil that caused all the beneficial effects. This included lowering of blood pressure, triglycerides and reducing the heart rate. Fish oil was also responsible for improvement of endothelial function, inflammation and blood clotting. In addition, fish oil protects against cardiac arrhythmias. They stated: “Fish oil supplementation could be an inexpensive, quick, safe way of increasing an individual’s omega-3 fatty acid intake”.

    Mayo Clinic study of taking higher doses of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    A study dated Sept. 17, 2020 showed the cardiovascular benefits of higher doses of omega-3 fatty acids. This was the second of two articles that showed that fish oil reduces cardiovascular disease and mortality. It was published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings. This metaanalysis involved 40 interventional studies and 135,000 patients. Two types of omega-3 fatty acids, namely EPA and DHA were studied with regard to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. EPA and DHA supplementation had the following effects.

    • 35% reduction of risk of a fatal heart attack
    • 13% reduction of heart attacks in general
    • 10% reduced risk of coronary heart disease occurrence
    • 9% reduction of mortality from coronary heart disease

    The researchers described that the higher the dose of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, the greater the protection.

    An extra dose of 1000 mg per day of EPA and DHA reduced the risk of cardiovascular disease as follows. There was a reduction of cardiovascular disease by 5.8% and of heart attacks by 9%. I take 1800 mg of EPA/DHA twice a day, a total of 3600 mg per day.

    Two Articles Showed that Fish Oil Reduces Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality

    Two Articles Showed that Fish Oil Reduces Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality

    Conclusion

    Two independent studies of fish oil or omega-3 fatty acids came to similar conclusions.  Heart attacks and strokes are significantly reduced. And mortality in the group that used fish oil supplementation was also significantly reduced. An extra dose of 1000 mg per day of EPA and DHA reduced the risk of cardiovascular disease as follows. There was a reduction of cardiovascular disease by 5.8% and of a heart attack by 9%. Based on these findings the researchers recommended that patients should use EPA/DHA supplementation to reduce cardiovascular risk. EPA/DHA supplementation lowers blood pressure, triglycerides and the heart rate. Fish oil was also responsible for improvement of endothelial function, also for the prevention of inflammation and blood clotting. In addition, fish oil protects against cardiac arrhythmias. The end result is that you live a healthier life.

    Feb
    06
    2021

    Researchers Developed a New Antibiotic to Solve Antibiotic Resistance

    In Philadelphia, PA Wistar Institute researchers developed a new antibiotic to solve antibiotic resistance. In the past 10 to 15 years antibiotic resistance has caused difficulties to cure infectious diseases. But Wistar Institute researchers were able to develop a new class of antibiotics that does not only kill bacteria, but also stimulates the immune system to fight the bacteria. The WHO has published a statement in July 2020 about the topic of antibiotic resistance.

    This report points out that pneumonia, tuberculosis, blood poisoning, gonorrhoea, and foodborne diseases are becoming harder to treat because of multiple antibiotic resistant bacterial strains. Sometimes physicians find it impossible to successfully treat these conditions. The Wistar Institute research hopefully will have the solution to overcoming resistance to antibiotics. An overall description of what the Wistar Institute researchers did is summarized here.

    Development of antimicrobials named dual-acting immuno-antibiotics

    The researchers developed a new class of antibiotics that have a dual action of being immunostimulants and antibiotics (DAIA antibiotics). This makes it much more difficult for bacteria to develop resistance. Conventional antibiotics usually target functions of the bacteria that are essential. This involves the synthesis of nucleic acid and proteins. It also targets the building up of cell membranes and metabolic pathways in the bacterium. But bacteria can fight back by becoming drug resistant and mutating the bacterial target of the antibiotic. This renders the antibiotic powerless against the bacteria that researchers originally designed to eliminate.

    The researchers argued that attacking bacteria on two different fronts makes it hard for them to develop resistant strains.

    Interruption of essential metabolic pathway in most bacteria

    The first the researchers focused on was a metabolic pathway that is essential for most bacteria, however it is absent in humans. This makes it an ideal target when you want to develop an antibiotic. The researchers chose to block an essential pathway in the pathogenic bacteria. More about this pathway is explained in this link. Isoprenoids are lipid compounds common in membranes of bacteria and vital for their survival. There is a key enzyme that is necessary to build up isoprenoids. It has the name IspH enzyme. The Wistar researchers concentrated on finding compounds that were able to inhibit the IspH enzyme. Most compounds they found were not able to penetrate the bacterial cell wall. However, they found compounds that penetrated the bacterial wall and inhibited the IspH enzyme. The researchers tested the new antibiotics against resistant gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. They were superior to conventional antibiotics.

    Immune activation of the novel antibiotics

    The Wistar Institute researchers showed that the antibiotics that inhibit the IspH enzyme are also creating powerful antigens against which the immune system mounts a strong immune response. With the dual action of being immunostimulants and antibiotics the antimicrobial agents are much more powerful than any existing conventional broad-spectrum antibiotic. The researchers tested a number of new DAIA antibiotics and could demonstrate that they were non-toxic to human cells. They also tested them against a wide range of pathogenic gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and found that they were very potent.

    Farokh Dotiwala, M.B.B.S., Ph.D., assistant professor in the Vaccine & Immunotherapy Center and coauthor of the study said: “We believe this innovative DAIA strategy may represent a potential landmark in the world’s fight against AMR, creating a synergy between the direct killing ability of antibiotics and the natural power of the immune system.” AMR stands for antimicrobial resistance.

    Researchers Developed a New Antibiotic to Solve Antibiotic Resistance

    Researchers Developed a New Antibiotic to Solve Antibiotic Resistance

    Conclusion

    The emergence of more and more resistant bacterial strains makes it difficult and expensive to treat bacterial infections. But the Wistar Institute published a research paper that introduces us to a new class of antibiotics. They have a dual action of being immunostimulants and antibiotics (DAIA antibiotics). The antibiotic action is a novel approach in that a DAIA antibiotic blocks an essential pathway in the pathogenic bacteria. This coupled with a strong immune response from the body against the bacteria ensures that no resistance against the DAIA antibiotics can develop. Studies with human cell cultures showed that the DAIA antibiotics are well tolerated. Human studies about various diseases due to antibiotic resistance will follow. This new antibiotic class has great potential to treat resistant bacteria, which will mean much better survival rates for persons with serious infections.

    Jan
    23
    2021

    Review about Human Oncolytic Virus Research in 2020

    The British Medical Journal published a review about human oncolytic virus research in 2020. That is to say, the BMJ published this report in July 2020. On the negative side, the report is rather complex with many technical terms. With this in mind, I will keep it as simple as possible for this summary. Notably, oncolytic viruses are a new way of treating cancer. Adenovirus was the most common oncolytic virus in use by cancer research in the past 20 years. It must be remembered, researchers applied this to mainly melanoma and gastrointestinal cancers. In the past I discussed the use of oncolytic viruses in a related post.

    History of licencing of oncolytic viruses

    1. The first oncolytic virus was licenced in 2004 in Latvia. This was an RNA virus derived from the native ECHO-7 strain of a picornavirus, called Rigvir. This oncolytic virus was approved for treating melanomas.
    2. Shortly after, in 2005, China approved a genetically modified adenovirus, H101 as an oncolytic virus. The approval was for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma combined with chemotherapy.
    3. In 2015, the U.S. the FDA approved T-VEC (Talimogene laherparepvec), an attenuated herpes simplex virus, type 1. This new oncovirus encodes granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). This is effective for the local treatment of inoperable, recurrent melanoma. It works for cutaneous, subcutaneous and nodal lesions in patients with recurrent melanoma after initial surgery.

    Review of 20 years of human oncolytic virus research

    The investigators reported about 97 clinical trials with oncolytic viruses performed between 2000 and 2020. That is to say, this involved 3233 patients with cancer. Most of these trials were phase I (50.5%) trials. There were an additional 6.2% studies, which were phase I/II. 11.3% were phase II clinical trials and only 2.1% were phase III clinical trials. 29.9 % of the literature did not specify what type of trial the investigations were about. However, they likely belonged into the phase I category as they reported on first trials of a therapy on man.

    Oncolytic viruses derive from various types of viruses 

    The number of studies that used a certain virus-derivative are included in brackets. It must be remembered that most of the studies dealt with six viruses: adenoviruses (30), herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) (23), reovirus (19), poxvirus (12), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) (5) and measles virus (3).

    Stimulation of the immune system through GM-CSF

    In 24 studies the researchers introduced GM-CSF transgene into an oncolytic virus. GM-CSF is a glycoprotein that is normally produced by granulocytes, a type of white blood cell. In this case, it stimulates dendritic cells, the precursors of T cells to produce killer T cells. Notably, this stimulates the immune system to better fight cancer.

    Types of cancer targeted with oncolytic viruses

    It is important to realize that the majority of the studies treated melanoma cases and gastrointestinal cancers. Namely, gastrointestinal cancers included esophageal cancer, gastric (stomach) cancer, colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer. There were 30 studies involving melanomas with 1000 patients. There were 76 clinical trials regarding gastrointestinal cancers with 577 patients.

    Moreover, other cancers where oncolytic viruses were studied were head and neck cancer (15 studies) breast and gynecological cancers (31 studies), genitourinary cancers (26 studies), and sarcomas (16 studies).

    Other drugs given along with oncolytic viruses

    It must be remembered that of the 97 total studies 62.9% were clinical trials where oncolytic viruses were the only therapy. In 37.1% of the studies physicians gave the oncolytic viruses along with cytotoxic chemotherapy, immunotherapy or radiotherapy.

    Side effects of treatment with oncolytic viruses

    The safety profile for treatment with oncolytic viruses appears to be tolerable. Fever was common, as were chills. Some patients reported nausea and vomiting, flu-like symptoms, fatigue and pain. But these symptoms disappeared within a few days.

    Suppression of the bone marrow for a period of time was common, but more so when there was a combination of  oncolytic viruses with chemotherapy. None of the patients transmitted viruses to household contacts or the healthcare team.

    Antitumor activity in clinical trials with involvement of oncolytic viruses

    An analysis of clinical responses to oncolytic virus therapy showed the following:

    • 1% had disease control, which broke down as follows (items 2,3 and 4)
    • 4% complete control (=cure)
    • 7% partial control
    • 12% stable disease
    • 9% No response to treatment with oncolytic viruses

    HSV-1 derived oncolytic viruses had the best response. The responses were not as good with adenovirus, reoviruses and with vaccinia viruses.

    Discussion

    Researchers of the BMJ publication analysed 97 clinical trials regarding oncolytic viruses over the past 20 years. This showed a number of points worth mentioning.

    1. The goal of oncolytic virus therapy is to induce tumor cell death. Physicians could achieve this indirectly by stimulating the immune system. Oncolytic viruses can stimulate both the innate immune system and the tumor-specific adaptive immune response.
    2. In the earlier years a lot of clinical trials investigated the safety of oncolytic viruses. But it became clear that oncolytic viruses were safe and fairly well tolerated.
    3. Many clinical trials involved oncogenic viruses with GM-CSF recombinant genes. This gene makes the oncolytic virus produce the GM-CSF protein, which stimulates dendritic cells. The end result is that the immune system produces more killer T cells that attack cancer cells, which results in higher cure rates.

    More problems with oncolytic viruses

    1. There are still many questions about how oncolytic viruses stimulate the immune system. More basic research is necessary in this field. Despite 20 years of research the cure rate of 3.4% and achieving partial control and stable disease in another 17.7% is not acceptable. Perhaps combinations with other cancer treatment methods may improve the cancer cure rates. The reviewers suggested one such combination, namely immune checkpoint blockade with oncolytic virus therapy.
    2. There is no resolution about which route of administering oncolytic viruses is best. Intratumor application in melanoma cases seems the be optimal. But other solid tumors are difficult to reach. In these cases, intravenous applications were a choice. In this case oncolytic viruses experience dilution in the blood and do not have a high enough concentration when they arrive at the cancer.

    Review about Human Oncolytic Virus Research in 2020

    Review about Human Oncolytic Virus Research in 2020

    Conclusion

    In a review researchers discussed the use of oncolytic viruses in cancer therapy over 20 years . Oncolytic viruses are derivatives mostly from adenoviruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), reovirus, poxvirus, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and the measles virus. In various clinical trials researchers found that disease control was achieve in only 21.1% of treated cases. There was a cure rate of 3.4%, but another 17.7% had partial control of the cancer or stable disease. But 78.9% of treated patients showed no response to treatment with oncolytic viruses. Obviously more research is necessary to improve the cure rates in cancer patients treated with oncolytic viruses. Clinical trials with combinations of immune checkpoint blockade and oncolytic virus therapy would also be helpful. All in all, oncolytic therapy is at this point not yet an effective form of treatment for cancer.