Aug
01
2004

Uric Acid Blood Test Predicts Future Health Problems

A 12 year prospective, well controlled follow-up study from Finland determined that uric acid blood tests are not only useful in following patients with gout or kidney stones, but are also predictive for future health problems including death. Dr. Leo K. Niskanen from Kuopio University in Finland and colleagues followed 1,423 middle-aged Finnish men who at the beginning of the study were free from cancer, heart disease, strokes and diabetes. After about 12 years the researchers found that 157 men had died, 55 from heart disease or strokes. When men with elevated uric acid levels were classified into low, medium and high levels, an interesting observation was made when subclasses were compared with each other. Those men in the upper range of uric acid levels had a risk of more than 2.5-fold to die from a heart attack or stroke when compared to men with uric acid levels in the lower range. Also, men in the higher range were 1.7-fold more at risk to die from any cause than men in the lower range of uric acid levels.

Dr. Niskanen said that uric acid simply seems to be another good marker for spotting troubles in health. The mechanism of this connection is not known at this point in time, but the test is easy to do and is very useful in screening a middle aged population.

Risk of Developing a Heart Attack or Stroke with Elevated Uric Acid Blood Test

Uric Acid Blood Test Predicts Future Health Problems1

Uric Acid Blood Test Predicts Future Health Problems

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other investigators in the past have also observed a similar association, but this seems to be the first longterm and prospective study.

More info on:

1.heart attacks: http://nethealthbook.com/cardiovascular-disease/heart-disease/heart-attack-myocardial-infarction-or-mi/

2. strokes: http://nethealthbook.com/cardiovascular-disease/stroke-and-brain-aneurysm/

3. Gout: http://nethealthbook.com/arthritis/gout/

Reference: Arch Intern Med 2004;164:1546-1551

Last edited October 26, 2014

Aug
01
2004

Birth Control Pill Increases Strokes And Heart Attacks

At the recent 86th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society in New Orleans/Louisiana a Canadian delegation presented data from a meta-analysis of 14 trials regarding side effects of the birth control pill (BCP) when taken on a prolonged basis. The researchers were interested to know the risk of heart attacks or strokes that would be associated with the prolonged use of the low dose estrogen BCP. All of the studies between 1980 and October of 2002 were examined and 14 independent studies qualified for the meta-analysis. The strength of such a meta-analysis lies in the pooling of data and the fact that the data is derived from a much larger patient population, which generally makes the results more reliable. Dr. J. Baillargeon from the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire in Sherbrooke, Quebec/Canada, stated that they found a 1.85-fold risk for developing heart attacks with longterm use of the BCP and at the same time there was a risk of 2.54-fold of hemorrhagic strokes with longterm use of the low-dose BCP.

I have depicted these findings below in graph form where the risk is readily seen when compared to women who did not use any birth control pills. In discussions following this presentation the authors explained that with short-term use of the BCP using the modern low dose formulations heart attacks and strokes would likely not be noticeable.

Birth Control Pill Increases Strokes And Heart Attacks

Birth Control Pill Increases Strokes And Heart Attacks

But women should know that long-term use does have this risk. These decisions of whether to take the BCP and for how long needs to be discussed with the treating physician also in the view that other risks such as high blood pressure, diabetes or the metabolic syndrome would be added risks where heart attacks and strokes can occur more frequently. In these conditions the BCP likely should be avoided.

Risk of Developing Heart Attack or Stroke after Longterm Use of The Birth Control Pill
 Birth Control Pill Increases Strokes And Heart Attacks1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. Ricardo Azziz, chairman of obstetrics and gynecology at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Centre in Los Angeles, California, stated that these findings from this meta-analysis would be very important because it was based on such a large data base and was measuring the effect of the BCP over a long period of time. He stressed that the benefits of any medication must always be weighed against the risks by the treating physician. In diabetic patients on the BCP, for instance, the benefits likely outweigh the risks as the metabolism is stabilized through an improved insulin sensitivity, improved managability of the diabetes and avoidance of the high risk pregnancies in diabetics.

More info on:

Heart attacks: http://nethealthbook.com/cardiovascular-disease/heart-disease/heart-attack-myocardial-infarction-or-mi/

Strokes: http://nethealthbook.com/cardiovascular-disease/stroke-and-brain-aneurysm/

Reference: The Medical Post, Vol.40, July 20, 2004, page 20

Comments on Nov. 6, 2012: What was not discussed by these experts is the fact that the BCP contains a mix of two artificial hormones (estrogen and progesterone equivalents) that the body’s estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors cannot recognize. Bio-identical estrogen and progesterone creams on the other hand would be recognized by these receptors, but nobody has researched their use for BCP purposes, only for post-menopausal hormone replacement.

Last edited Oct. 26, 2014

May
01
2004

Age-Related Macular Degeneration Can Be Postponed

In a well-controlled study that was published earlier in 2004 Dr. Johanna M. Seddon

has shown that age-related blindness (AMD) is caused from an inflammation in the blood vessels, which is associated with an elevated blood marker, called C-reactive protein (CRP). The authors of this study also showed that the dry form of AMD would tend to deteriorate with age and/or from smoking cigarettes into the more serious wet form, a common cause of blindness.

The inflammatory component of cardiovascular disease is known to be controlled by the use of aspirin (ASA) or the statins, medication that is known to lower the bad LDL cholesterol. It is with this background that the author of the study that I am reviewing here, Dr. Jacque L. Duncan from the University of California at San Francisco, has examined the effects of ASA and of statins on AMD. 326 patients with AMD (204 with dry AMD, 104 with wet AMD from blood vessels forming underneath the retina and 18 with geographic atrophy) were followed between January 1990 and March 2003. Patients were at least 60 years old or older and followed at the San Francisco VA Hospital Eye Clinic.
Dr. Duncan found that patients with blindness due to wet AMD used ASA or statins significantly less than patients with stable AMD. Moreover, he found that patients who had AMD and took statins were 49% less likely to develop wet AMD and if they took ASA the were 37% less likely to develop wet AMD.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration Can Be Postponed

Age-Related Macular Degeneration Can Be Postponed

The study also suggests that there is a link between the inflammatory process that leads to heart attacks and strokes on the one hand and the further deterioration to blindness when dry AMD is not treated on the other hand. The notion that inflammation is the missing link in both of these processes is a relatively new finding.

More information about Macular Degeneration here.

Based on article by Dr. Jacque L. Duncan in the American Journal of Ophthalmology 2004;137: 615-624.

Last edited October 26, 2014

Mar
01
2004

Ankle Blood Pressure Reveals Diabetic Problems

One of the complications of diabetes is that ity leads to clogged arteries from peripheral artery disease and this can lead to heart attacks, strokes and circulation problems in the legs.

Recommendations were recently given to physicians in the December edition of the medical journal Diabetes Care that circulation problems in diabetics need to be monitored more stringently to avoid needless amputations.

Medically these circulation problems that affect mainly lower legs and feet are known as “peripheral vascular disease” (or PVD for short). PVD can be detected by the physician checking for ankle pulses. Another valuable and very simple test is to measure the blood pressure in the arm and at each ankle (using the stethoscope just under the inside (medial) ankle bone. If there is a major discrepancy between the arm and ankle blood pressure or if the ankle pulse is missing, this would be a sign of possible PVD. With a diabetic patient it would still be important to get the hemoglobin A1C under control through exercise, a low glycemic diet and possibly anti-diabetic medication. But the patient likely would have to be referred to a cardiovascular surgeon for further testing in order to find out whether there would be hardening of the arteries with circulation problems in the lower leg, the ankle or foot.

Ankle Blood Pressure Reveals Diabetic Problems

Ankle Blood Pressure Reveals Diabetic Problems

Dr. Peter Sheehan, the director of the Diabetes Foot & Ankle Center at the New York University school of medicine, stated that many patients and doctors overlook how frequent this condition is. About 33% of diabetic patients who are older than 50 years have PVD, but only a fraction know about it until it is too late. Once a patient has PVD in one of the legs there is a 4-fold risk of getting a heart attack or a stroke, because the hardening of the arteries is happening simultaneously in all of the body’s arteries. If the blood pressure is normal at the ankle, Dr. Sheehan recommends to check it again in 5 years.

Who should have the blood pressure check at the ankle? Here is a table that summarizes Dr. Sheehan’s recommendations.

Which diabetic needs the ankle blood pressure check?
High risk group: Remarks or more detail:
Anyone with leg PVD* symptoms legs tired or hurting when walking
Young diabetics
with other risks
smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes present for more than 10 years are such risk factors
diabetics 50 years of age and over particularly when the hemoblobin A1C is high and other risk factors are present
*PVD peripheral vascular disease

Why is it so important to screen for circulation problems in the lower legs? Because this is the area where diabetics tend to get problems that often result in amputations of a foot or lower leg below the knee. With early detection of these problems and intervention by a cardiovascular surgeon often disastrous outcomes can be avoided.

More info is available at:

Diabetes: http://nethealthbook.com/hormones/diabetes/type-2-diabetes/

High blood pressure: http://nethealthbook.com/cardiovascular-disease/high-blood-pressure-hypertension/

Last edited October 26, 2014

Mar
01
2004

Inflammatory Marker Linked To Blindness

Up to now age-related blindness or “age-related macular degeneration” (AMD) as it is medically called, has been a mystery. The retina is the light-sensitive area of the eye similar to the film in a camera. The “macula” is that part of the retina that has the highest visual acuity. Several studies have been conducted lately regarding age-related blindness that shed more light on this important health hazard of old age, studies that one day might even lead to a cure or powerful preventative measures to avoid it from ever developing.

One such study is the one by Dr. Johanna M. Seddon and co-workers published in the Feb. 11, 2004 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Almost 1000 patients with various degrees of age-related degrees of blindness from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified by the degree of their macular degeneration. I have produced the bar graphs below based on these studies.

Four groups were defined, namely those with no AMD who served as controls, those with mild AMD, those with moderate AMD and those with severe AMD who were legally blind. They suspected that an inflammatory marker in the blood stream of these patients, called C-reactive protein (CRP), might be present in the more severe cases of blindness when compared to the control group who did not have any inflammatory changes in the macula. As can be seen by the bar graph above this is exactly what the test results indicated. They also found that smokers (blue bars) tended to have slightly worse blood tests in terms of CRP (more inflammatory substances circulating in the system) within the same severity category of the age-related eye changes.

CRP (mg/L) Levels in Various Degrees of Severity of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

Inflammatory Marker Linked To Blindness

Inflammatory Marker Linked To Blindness

When the investigators studied the risk for the highest percentile of the CRP tests within various subgroups to show AMD they found several differences as is shown in the next table. First there was a low probability to develop AMD in a person with a normal looking macula and that risk was set at 1.0 as comparison. In contrast a person with a normal looking macula who smokes has a 1.5-fold risk of developing AMD later. Patients with a moderate degree of AMD have about a 2-fold risk of getting a severe degree of AMD later (smoking or not). It seems that once the inflammatory cycle has started, the process of causing a moderate degree of AMD is so strong that the effect of smoking will not add that much in comparison.

This is the first study of this kind that has established that CRP can be used as a screening for the risk to develop AMD. CRP has already been established as a test for monitoring progress in rheumatoid arthritis or to monitor for the risk of developing a heart attack or stroke.

Another study by Dr. Johanna M. Seddon and co-workers was published recently in the Archives of Ophthalmology. 261 people aged 60 years and older with established AMD were followed for 4.6 years and checked for deterioration. 101 patients had deterioration of their AMD.

Risk of Developing Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in Highest CRP Percentile
 Inflammatory Marker Linked To Blindness1

The authors analyzed the patients’ diet habits and found that increased fat intake was a high risk factor for deteriorating AMD. Both vegetable and animal fat had a 2-to 3-fold increased risk for deterioration of the AMD to a more severe stage (legal blindness). Fish, omega-3 fatty acid and nuts had a protective effect, but only when omega-6 fatty acid (linoleic acid) intake was low in the same group. The studies showed that the risk of age-related blindness was reduced by 40% when patients ate nuts at least once per week. The authors concluded that a “fat conscious diet” would be good for “maintaining good eye health” and at the same time be beneficial for prevention of heart attacks and strokes.

The authors will do further studies to investigate potential ways of helping patients with AMD and to understand the mechanisms of the disease process better.

References: 1. JAMA 2004;291:704-710  2. Arch Ophthalmol – 01-DEC-2003; 121(12): 1728-37

Last edited December 8, 2012

Dec
01
2003

New Cholesterol-Lowering Drug Reduces Inflammatory Marker

With newer knowledge about the process of hardening of the arteries from the ongoing Framingham study it is not surprising that the drug companies are shifting the development of cholesterol-lowering drugs to those substances that will reduce inflammation of the arteries as well. In previous issues of the health newsletter I summarized a paper that was published on the importance of the C-reactive protein (also called CRP) in connection with the diagnosis of heart attacks and strokes. I also reviewed an article that pointed out that both CRP and LDL cholesterol are important in determining who is at risk for developing a heart attack or stroke.

In a press release to Reuters on Nov. 13, 2003 Merck & Co. Inc. and Schering-Plough Corp. announced that ezetimib (Zetia), a new cholesterol-lowering drug that is marketed by both companies, was found by their researchers to lower C-reactive protein (CRP) significantly. At the annual meeting of the American Heart Association in Orlando/Fla. these researchers presented a clinical trial showing that ezetimib when used in combination with small amounts of simvastatin (Zocor) lowered CRP by 33%. However, simvastatin alone lowered CRP only by 14.3%. Dr. Christie Ballantyne, a Baylor College cardiologist, pointed out that this new finding was very important. It was important, because it shows that these drugs do not only lower LDL cholesterol, which according to the Framingham study is a known risk factor for heart attacks and strokes. In addition it has now also been proven to lower CRP significantly at the same time, which is another known inflammatory component produced by the blood vessels also associated with heart attacks and strokes.

New Cholesterol-Lowering Drug Reduces Inflammatory Marker

New Cholesterol-Lowering Drug Reduces Inflammatory Marker

Merck and Schering-Plough are now developing a new formulation containing both of these medications as one pill (Vytorin). This has the advantage to lower the risk on liver cells of Zocor by being able to lower the dose in the pill. The Zocor component will mainly lower the LDL cholesterol in the blood (and the CRP somewhat as well) and the Zetia component will provide the beneficial effect of the CRP lowering (anti-inflammatory component and LDL lowering). There is another advantage of this combination: Zetia works by inhibiting absorption of cholesterol by the gut, Zocor works by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis in the liver cells. Whenever the mechanism of action is different two drugs in combination are usually better tolerated than if both would work through the same mechanism. However, the companies pointed out that more research and clinical trials are needed to check out side-effects of Zetia before it would be submitted to the FDA for approval for general prescription by physicians.

P.S. on Oct. 31, 2012: Read the following article about Zetia and Vytorin (the combination pill): http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/14/business/14cnd-drug.html?_r=0

Links regarding further information about heart disease (Net Health Book).

Last edited December 9, 2012

Nov
01
2003

Stroke Risk Increases With Carotid Artery Disease

An important study about the risk of strokes and mini-strokes (called”transient ischemic attacks”) was published in the Oct. 27 edition of the Archives of Internal Medicine. Dr. Daniel J. Bertges and his group followed 1,004 patients between 1988 and 1997 with ultrasound studies of the carotid arteries (carotid artery duplex ultrasound scans). The studies took place at the Pittsburgh Veterans Affairs Medical Center/University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. Patients were followed with regard to events such as strokes on the side of where the narrowed carotid artery was.

Reversible mini-strokes (medically correct term:”transient ischemic attack” or TIA) were also registered. A total of 1,701 narrowed arteries (called “stenotic arteries”) were found with this ultrasound method. All of the patients initially had no symptoms of the carotid artery stenosis (no dizziness, no fainting, no absence spells or symptoms of TIA or stroke). In 75% of the patients the carotid stenotic lesions were less than 50% meaning that the carotid artery blood flow was acceptable.

Here are some of the risks as the study went on over the years: both TIA and CVA risk in a given patient occurred at a rate of 3.3% per year. Regarding a specific involved artery the risk of developing a TIA as a result of this was 2% per year and the risk to develop a stroke was 2.1% per year. The investigators found that two main factors determined the ultimate progression into a TIA or a stroke and they were as follows. First, if the artery was severely stenosed at the outset, the probability was high that this would progress and be the cause of a stroke. Secondly, the degree of progression when checked with a follow-up duplex ultrasound was another important factor in terms of leading to a subsequent TIA or stroke.

Stroke Risk Increases With Carotid Artery Disease

Carotid artery clot can cause stroke

The composite risk of developing either a TIA or a stroke with a worsening stenotic carotid artery lesion was 1.68-fold. To develop a stroke alone in this scenario the risk was 1.78-fold. Clinical risk factors were of no help in predicting which cases would go on to develop TIA’s or strokes. However, the finding of further progression of a stenotic carotid artery lesion documented on serial duplex ultrasound studies was highly significant.

The authors concluded that there is value in doing serial carotid artery duplex scan studies in the same patient to screen for progressing stenotic lesions in the carotid arteries. When a stenotic lesion is significant enough or progressing fast, intervention by a cardiovascular surgeon with carotid endarterectomy can be done to prevent a stroke or TIA.

Here is a link to a chapter on strokes from the Net Health Book.

Last edited October 26, 2014

Oct
02
2003

Better Recovery From Strokes Through Early CAT Scans

In the September 2001 issue of the American Journal of Neuroradiology (Am J Neuroradiol – 01-SEP-2001; 22(8): 1534-42) a group of clinicians from the Foothills Hospital in Calgary/Alberta had published an article with a scoring system for CAT scans (also abbreviated CT scans) that would be done on every patient with a stroke. By utilizing early CT scans and this scoring system an ischemic stroke (due to a blood vessel that closed off in the brain) could be rapidly assessed. Within 3 hours of the beginning of the stroke the treating physician would know whether the patient would benefit from clot-busting drugs (TPA or tissue plasminogen activator) or not. Dr. Pexman and co-workers had noted that patients with an Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) of less than 7 had a poor survival rate or an outcome with high dependency on caregivers. Patients with a score of 7 to 10 had a much better survival chance and were ideal candidates for the clot-busting therapy. The brain of the stroke patient depicted by CT scans using this method is divided into 10 regions and the findings are systematically evaluated by the radiologist and an ASPECTS score is obtained. Dr. Michael Hill, an assistant professor at the University of Calgary, and one of the co-workers of this initial study has now completed a further follow-up study together with Dr. A.Buchan, director of the Calgary Stroke Program. The results were published in the August 2003 issue of the medical journal “Stroke”. They found that ischemic strokes (from clots in the middle cerebral artery) have the best outcome when detected by CT scan early (within 3 hours of the beginning of the stroke) and if thrombolysis therapy with TPA, the clot-busting drug, is done before 6 hours after the beginning of the stroke.

Better Recovery From Strokes Through Early CAT Scans

CT Scan of Ischemic Stroke

The lack of blood circulation from a stroke,which closed the middle cerebral artery, is shown in this link. What does that mean in practical terms? Let us assume a patient is suddenly losing all of the strength and movement in one arm and losing speech as well. An emergency CT scan is done right away and it is determined that the patient has had a stroke in the middle cerebral artery. Let us say that the ASPECTS score was between 7 and 10. This patient’s physicians would likely treat the stroke with the clot-busting medicine mentioned being confident that there likely will be a good outcome. In the past, before this therapy was available, many of these patients would end up with a permanent arm palsy without much function and sustain a permanent speech deficit as well. After the clot-busting therapy many of these patients who have a good outlook will now have a considerable, if not full return of function in their arm and regain their speech as well. Unfortunately, the opposite is true as well: those with a poor ASPECTS score below 7 will not be candidates for the clot-busting therapy and will tend to do poorly. This scoring system of early CT scans with strokes (ASPECTS) is already being used in several countries such as Canada, the US, Australia and Europe. “Early detection and intervention in stroke is critical to achieve a positive outcome” said Dr. A.Buchan, director of the Calgary Stroke Program, who is also a professor in the department of clinical neurosciences of the University of Calgary/Alberta. Here is a link for more background on strokes.

Last edited October 26, 2014

Aug
01
2003

Modify Risk Factors For Erectile Dysfunction (ED) In Elderly Men

Erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence) is a subject that is difficult to research because of its personal nature. Very few good studies are available regarding the question as to how common it would be among older men.

A team of medical experts under Dr. Constance G. Bacon from the Harvard School of Public Health and other institutions have investigated this problem in men older than 50 years and published the results in the August 5, 2003 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

31,724 men aged 53 to 90 years were taking part in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Since 1986 they had been filling out detailed questionaires biennially. In 2000 detailed questions about sexual function were also included. Erectile dysfunction was defined as “having poor or very poor ability to have and maintain an erection sufficient for intercourse without treatment during the past 3 months”. The investigators found that about 1/3 of the men above the age of 50 had a sexual dysfunction. Such factors as orgasm, ability to have intercourse, sexual desire and overall sexual function were all affected more and more with every year after the age of 50. When this was further analyzed using multivariate analyses an interesting pattern of reasons for this emerged. The following factors were identified to be independent risk factors for the development of erectile dysfunction.

Modify Risk Factors For Erectile Dysfunction (ED) In Elderly Men

Modify Risk Factors For Erectile Dysfunction (ED) In Elderly Men

Each of the factors from this table is an independent risk factor and can be managed separately. For instance, the investigators found that a higher level of physical activity was associated with much less ED. The best group (men with no ED) was found among those who were always conscious about disease prevention and who had none of the conditions listed in this table or other chronic medical conditions. Leanness and physical activity were associated with good sexual functioning in this study.

Risk factors leading to erectile dysfunction (ED)
Symptoms: Comments:
increasing age
aging likely affects the blood supply to the swelling bodies of the penis; it also clamps down on testosterone production of the testicles
smoking accelerates aging and hardening of arteries
diabetes mellitus affects circulation and nerve impulse transmission
stroke
interferes with brain centers of arousal
antidepressant medication anticholinergic side-effect interferes with penile erection
beta-blocker medication reduction of libido (likely at the brain level from sympathetic nerve block)
alcohol consumption alcohol is a nerve poison that interferes with pudendus nerve function (lack of erections)
TV viewing time due to prolonged sitting there is a chronic lack of exercise that leads to nerve conduction and circulatory problems resulting in ED

This summary is based on a paper published in the medical journal of Annals of Internal Medicine 2003;139:161-168 by Dr. Constance G. Bacon and co-workers.

Here is a brief chapter on erectile dysfunction from Dr. Schilling’s web-based free Net Health Book.

Last edited October 26, 2014

Aug
01
2003

Reduction Of Complications After A Stroke

Following an acute stroke, it used to be taught in medical school that lowering the blood pressure would be something to avoid for fear that this would lower circulation to the brain and could make a stroke worse. A new study, called ACCESS (Acute Candesartan Cilexitil Therapy in Stroke Survivors), is proving this teaching wrong and demands a 180° turnaround.

Dr. Joachim Schrader has pablished this landmark study recently in the Medical Journal “Stroke” (Stroke – 01-JUL-2003; 34(7): 1699-703). This study followed 339 stroke patients after an initial angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker was given right away versus a control group who got it only 1 week later. In other words, the test here was to see what would happen, if treatment would be started right away during the acute phase of the stroke. Up to now this was only done in the stable period after 1 or 2 weeks (the conventional approach). The 1 year follow-up data showed that the overal death rate from all causes (summing up all complications) was 47.5% less in the treatment group than in the control group. In other words by using intervention with this newer type of blood pressure lowering medication, such as the angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker candesartan (Atacand), complications such as extension of the stroke or heart problems and other complications were averted. The end result were fewer deaths and better quality of life in those who survived.

The Medical Post in its July 29, 2003 edition (p. 1 and 54) interviewed Dr.Ashfak Shuaib, professor of neurology of the University of Alberta in Edmonton, regarding the significance of this study. He felt that there likely would be a new hormonal effect on the brain from the lining of the arteries in the brain that gets blocked and that leads to an increase of blood supply to the brain.

Reduction Of Complications After A Stroke

Reduction Of Complications After A Stroke

This in turn would rescue the brain tissue around the stroke preventing the late complications. He said that this line of research would be very solid data, but that it would have to be confirmed by an independent study from other investigators. Dr. Shuaib’s group of researchers are planning an imaging study where they will study the blood flow following strokes under the same conditions using candesartan (Atacand).

Link to a chapter on stroke of the Net Health Book.

Last edited October 26, 2014