Jun
02
2018

Combatting Aging using Artificial Intelligence

I found an article dealing with combatting aging using artificial intelligence. It comes from the April 2018 edition of the Life Extension Magazine.  Both of those concepts sound intriguing: “combatting aging”. It would be nice, if this would be a possibility! And “artificial intelligence” (A.I.) sounds mysterious. LifeExtension researchers have partnered up with an A.I. group, called Insilico Medicine.

Why did Life Extension engage in this project? Many people have side effects with the drug metformin, which is an old diabetes drug. It turns out that metformin stimulates anti-aging genes that help to elongate telomeres and also activate genes that prolong lives otherwise. The thought was to find out how exactly metformin protects against age-related disorders. Once researchers located the genes, they may be able to find herbs that can do the same as drugs with less side effects. Often herbs are safer than drugs.

Background regarding metformin

The FDA accepted metformin (trade name Glucophage) as the first-line therapy for type 2 diabetics, particularly if they are overweight or obese.

Side effects include gastrointestinal irritation with vomiting, cramps, diarrhea and flatulence. Even though this drug is not new, research does not fully understand all metabolic effects of metformin.

Promise of metformin as an anti-aging drug

A trial in Great Britain found that metformin has an interesting anti-aging effect. Diabetics on metformin lived longer than a control group of patients without diabetes who were not on metformin. The diabetics lived 15% longer than the controls. Further experiments with human cells and animal experiments showed that metformin is able to stimulate the mitochondria without producing as many free radicals. Free radicals cause inflammation that leads to heart attacks, strokes, Alzheimer’s and cancer. The suggestion is that all of these diseases will be suppressed when the patient is on metformin.

Mimicking the effects of metformin with three herbs

The co-operative research between the Life Extension researchers and Insilico Medicine researchers concentrated on finding data that would replace the beneficial effects of metformin with three herbs stimulating the same life-prolonging targets in human cells. This is not a small task. The following three herbs in combination cover more than 78% of the actions of metformin.

Withaferin A (found in Ashwagandha)

Weight loss

Withaferin A is a component of the life-prolonging herb ashwagandha. This herb is in use in Ayurvedic medicine because of its ant-inflammatory action; it is also anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-obesity and has appetite-regulating activities. An important observation by researchers was that within 21 days of exposing obese mice to withaferin A they lost 23% of their weight. Other mice on the same diet received control solutions and did not lose weight.

Effect on neurodegenerative disease

There is a neurodegenerative condition, called Lou Gehrig disease (=amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). A group of mice that were the subjects of genetic modification to develop Lou Gehrig disease received withaferin A in their food. Compared to controls without withaferin A they had a 39% reduction of damaged proteins in their spinal cords. They also had 60% less loss of motor nerve cells. These are the nerve cells that pass on the electrical signals between the brain, the spinal cord and into the muscles. The life span of these animals that received withaferin A was 5.4% longer than control animals.

Ginsenoside (found in Ginseng)

The structure of ginsenoside is steroid-like. As the name already suggests, it is present in ginseng. The Insilico Medicine team noticed that it affects many of the same age-decelerating pathways like metformin. Ginsenoside prevents damage to the DNA and prevents loss of mitochondria, particularly in the brain and heart. In cancer cases ginsenoside also suppresses cancer stem cells, which slows down cancer growth. All in all ginsenoside reduces inflammatory changes; it also fights neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer.

Gamma linolenic acid (present in borage seed oil)

Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) is a fatty acid. The source of it is the evening primrose plant, black currant oil or borage. The Insilico Medicine researchers found that many pathways that metformin triggers are also responding to GLA. GLA can reduce inflammation, help with adaptation to stress can modulate metabolism and participates in regulation of gene expression. GLA is also part of energy sensing in diabetes and obesity. It also can slow down cancer development.

Discussion

One has to be cognizant of the fact that LifeExtension is in the business of selling herbal supplements. It would be in the company’s interest to find an herbal combination that mimics what Metformin does. They say they have found it; so we are told in the April 2018 article of the LifeExtension magazine. But a 78% overlap of actions when the herbs were compared to metformin is not a 100% overlap.

Conflict of interest

There seems to be a conflict of interest between doing basic research on anti-aging and marketing an anti-aging product. I like to see confirmation of these findings by other independent researchers. I am not too keen to spend $1.40 every day for the rest of my life in the hopes that this herbal concoction would slow down aging. Also to state that this mix of three herbs would do the same as Metformin is a large leap of faith. At this point I am not even ready to swallow metformin just because of one trial in England that showed a beneficial anti-aging effect.

Combatting Aging using Artificial Intelligence

Combatting Aging using Artificial Intelligence

Conclusion

The old dream of finding a pill for anti-aging is alive and well. If you believe this research you are likely to buy this pill and keep on taking it for the rest of your life. But I am not so certain that either swallowing metformin or swallowing this herbal concoction will do what the researchers were hoping for. They have done some basic research with mice and rats. But they tested each of the herbs  separately, and the researchers have then mixed the herbs and claim, that this mix will do what each single herb in isolation has done. We do not know anything about the interaction between these herbs. We do not know whether there will be the same anti-aging results with the mix. All these claims are yet subject to more testing.

Proposed clinical trial

I like to see a human trial where the anti-aging pill of Life Extension is given once per day for several years (let’s say 5 years). After that anti-inflammatory indicators, telomere length and toxicity should be tested in each subject that is part of the study. If trials like this were successful in humans, I would consider buying this new supplement, but not any earlier!

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Apr
14
2018

Where Does Fat Go With Weight loss?

People often wonder where does fat go with weight loss? This question recently came up in a CNN conversation.  The answer was originally researched by Dr. Ruben Meerman and Professor Andrew Brown.

Dr. Meerman is an assistant scientist at the University of New South Wales and author of “Big Fat Myths: When You Lose Weight, Where Does the Fat Go?” Professor Brown is the head of the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences at the same university.

When you lose 1 kilogram of fat, where does fat go with weight loss?

The interesting answer to this question is that fat gets metabolized. Dr, Meerman and Prof. Brown pointed out that originally Leifson et al. answered this question who used heavy oxygen and found out that this was metabolized into heavy water.

Technically these experiments are fairly complex, but they allow the researchers to see exactly where the body incorporates these chemicals and where they end up with breakdown of fat. The BMJ paper describes that the breakdown of 1 kg of fat follows the following pattern: It breaks down into 0.84 kg of CO2 (carbon dioxide) and 0.16 kg of H2O (water). In other words, the lungs are the primary organs that get rid of fat and the kidneys excrete the water. There is a bit of extra energy in this chemical reaction as well, which dissipates through the skin and through exhaled air.

What did health professionals think where the fat would go?

The health professionals were doctors, dieticians and personal trainers. About 65% of them thought fat would evaporate into energy/heat. About 10% thought fat would end up in the feces. 5% thought fat would turn into muscle. Another 5% thought fat would turn into sweat or urine. 8% were correct that fat would become CO2 and H2O. 7% said they did not know.

The chemistry of fat deposits and metabolizing fat

The body deposited triglycerides from the liver metabolism of sugar and fatty acids into fat cells and stored them as oleate (C18H34O2), palmitate (C16H32O2), and linoleate (C18H32O2). Part of this are many chemical reactions, including a number of enzymes. These fatty acids form esters and turn into gigantic molecules with this chemical formula: C55H104O6. The BMJ paper further says that an overall chemical description of metabolized fat would look like this:

C55H104O6+78O2→55CO2+52H2O+energy. In plain English it means that 1 molecule of fat ester (from fat storage) is metabolized together with 78 molecules of oxygen. This results in 55 molecules of carbon dioxide, 52 molecules of water and energy.

Fat turns into carbon dioxide and water

Based on this chemical reaction a calculation of the breakdown of fat into carbon dioxide and water was possible. The surprising result is that 84% of fat becomes carbon dioxide and only 16% of fat becomes water. We exhale the carbon dioxide from our lungs and it is mostly the kidneys that excrete the water. People who lose weight are aware that they have to urinate more often. But they do not notice that they get rid of a lot of carbon dioxide, as this is a subtle process.

Some observations from the fasting mimicking diet

The fasting mimicking diet (FMD) was at the center of the most recent anti-aging conference in Las Vegas I attended. This was the 25th Annual World Congress on Anti-Aging Medicine in Las Vegas, Dec. 14-16, 2017. Late in December 2017 I started 5 days of FMD and have just completed my 4th round of it (FMD is done 5 days out of each month). My main interest in doing this is to prevent heart attacks and strokes and I like the idea of stimulating telomeres for anti-aging and increasing stem cell production. See more details under this link.

Personal experience of fasting mimicking diet

I keep meticulous records of my body measurements using daily body composition scales, which I record in a booklet. Between March 23, 2018 and March 28 I lost 1.5 kg from 64.8 kg to 63.3 kg. Fat composition was reduced from 14.1% to 12.2%. Visceral fat was reduced from 6% to 5%. My muscle percentage rose from 38.1% to 39.1%. The basic metabolic rate was 1471 Calories on March 23 and went down to 1449 Calories on March 28. My body mass index went from 22.0 to 21.5.

I definitely noticed the frequent urination, something I had noticed in the past in 2001 when I lost 50 pounds over 3 months. Of course it is understandable when you reduce your daily calorie intake to 600 Calories per day that you will lose this amount of weight. People have different metabolisms. It may be that you won’t lose as much as I did.

What causes mainly weight loss?

There are many people who think that extra exercise would help you lose weight. But a publication has established that only about 8% of weight loss is due to exercising. 92% of weight loss is due to dieting.

Regular exercise is important for conditioning of your lungs, heart, muscles and joints. But to keep things in balance a reasonable diet, like a Mediterranean diet, should also be part of the regimen.

Sugar overconsumption

The obesity wave in the US started to take off between 1976 and 1980. 40 years later it is still rising. It is interesting to note that both wheat flour and sugar consumption in the US were increasing parallel to the rising obesity figures. In the 70’s the old-fashioned wheat has changed into the force hybridized Clearfield wheat, which is now 100% of the commercially available wheat. Clearfield wheat contains 7-fold higher gluten amounts than the old-fashioned wheat that your grandparents consumed. Gluten stimulates your appetite, so you crave more wheat and you crave more sugar. This becomes a vicious cycle.

Excess calories are stored as fat

The liver metabolizes sugar from regular food and from processed food into triglycerides and LDL cholesterol (the bad cholesterol that plugs up arteries). As I mentioned above, the body stores any excess triglycerides as fat and deposits the excess into fatty cells. You see from this that essentially sugar and wheat end up as fat deposits. I suggest you change your food intake into eating sensible food with fewer calories. Start by eliminating most of your sugar, wheat and processed food intake. This will help you to melt fat away as I showed with an example of my 5 day FMD.

Where Does Fat Go With Weight loss?

Where Does Fat Go With Weight loss?

Conclusion

I reviewed facts about the chemistry of melting fat away. The question is where does fat go with weight loss? In the process of weight loss fat breaks down into carbon dioxide and water. I also documented how you can lose fat in just 5 days (1.1 kilogram) on a 600-calorie diet and reduce the body mass index from 22.0 to 21.5.

Most people do not recognize the importance of watching their diet to achieve weight loss. 92% of weight loss occurs as a result of dieting. Wheat and sugar consumption have a direct connection to the obesity wave that started between 1976 and 1980. I have cut out all wheat, all sugar and all processed food in 2001. This allowed me to lose 50 pounds then and my body mass index today is 21.5. It can be done, even if you are 73 years old.

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Feb
10
2018

What To Do To Stop Eating Junk Food

Eating junk food is a favorite pastime in North America, so what to do to stop eating junk food? Everybody knows that it is not a good choice, and it is known that health problems have a connection to unhealthy eating habits. When you are used to eating junk food, your taste buds are accommodated to the inferior foods that you want to avoid. I would suggest you educate yourself first regarding what junk food is, and next compare it to healthy food. Junk food has additives and taste enhancers.

Monosodium glutamate

Monosodium glutamate is one additive that often is on the ingredient list of processed foods. This is not a harmless flavor enhancer. It belongs into the group of excitotoxins. The substance can destroy brain cells. It also has the potential to give you a nasty headache, especially if larger quantities are in the food. When we look for food, we do not want to get a headache or risk losing our memory down the road. I threw out all MSG containing foods in 2001. To make it challenging MSG comes under many disguised names: autolysed yeast, monosodium glutamate, textured protein, yeast food, sodium caseinate and others.

Read labels and exclude products with MSG in it. It is a good investment into your future without Alzheimer’s disease or other cognitive disorders.

Avoid refined sugar

Next you want to make sure that sugar is excluded from your diet; with this I mean refined sugar as well as sugar from processed foods. If you read food labels, you probably are aware of how much sugar manufacturers include in processed foods. It tastes pleasing, it is cheap and it makes people come back to buy more. But you as the consumer have a right to get rid of this as it causes your insulin level to increase, and on the long term paves the way to diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (heart attacks and strokes), Alzheimer’s disease and others. As a result I do not buy anything with added sugar.

Use stevia instead of sugar

If I like to sweeten my coffee or yogurt, I can do it by adding a tiny bit of stevia, a natural plant sweetener. There are no calories, there is no insulin response, no worry about diabetes or Alzheimer’s, and no tooth decay either.

Cook more meals at home and avoid restaurants

The more you can cook at home, the easier it is to take your lunch salad along in a BPA free container. It is better for you, better for your health, and by actively avoiding junk outlets; restaurants will get the message and offer healthier food choices down the road. It is a process of years to change consumer habits. You will be the beneficiary. Here is an example how to order food in a restaurant, if you want to make healthy choices:

Eating out at a restaurant

What would you like for a drink?

The first thing the waiter will do is asking you what drinks you want to order. My answer is sparkling (or non-sparkling) mineral water. This establishes that I do not want to order alcoholic drinks or sugary sodas. They are empty calories; they are also overpriced. But if you really want to have a glass of red or white wine, make sure that you pick a good one and only one glass. Studies have shown that the resveratrol in it will prevent heart attacks, but too much of it undermines your liver and the healthy condition of your pancreas.

The main event

Next the waiter will come with bread and butter. It is best to skip these offerings. I just say: “Thank you, but I don’t eat bread or pasta”. As a matter of fact I usually tell the waiter when I order the mineral water that I do not want any bread. Waiters nowadays understand: no carbs! (The truth is that you do indeed eat carbs. Vegetables and fruit are low-density carbs!) It goes like a red line through the rest of the order. It starts when I order my meal: a bowl of salad as a starter is great, and next I order meat or fish with a side of vegetables. The waiter understands, and often restaurants will offer to substitute the pasta or potatoes with extra vegetables.

Dessert anybody?

After the meal the waiter will temptingly produce the dessert menu: any dessert today? The answer is a simple “no, not today”. After a filling meal nobody needs a dessert that is off the calorie Richter scale!

Usually this is the blueprint for me at a restaurant. With this approach you will avoid weight gain, but you will leave the restaurant satisfied. Unfortunately these days in most restaurants we do not have any choices yet with regard to organic food. More restaurants are starting to pay attention. Again, it is consumer habits that make a change!

At home the thought processes are very similar to eating out in a restaurant. You develop some discipline and stick to healthy foods. Avoid sugar, MSG, too many starchy foods and processed foods. Before you know it, it becomes a lifestyle that you take with you wherever you go.

Shopping for healthy foods

As we want to go out to restaurants less and eat at home more, it is important that I tell you how to shop. We want healthy food with no or a minimum of insecticide residues on vegetables or fruit. This is why it is important to buy a lot of organic vegetables and fruit.

Before you start shopping I suggest you look at your fridge critically. Cut out all refined sugar and starchy foods. So you go through the content of your fridge and look at all of the labels to assess what every food contains. I did exactly this in 2001 and 1/3 of the content of my fridge had to be thrown out, as it was incompatible with a sensible diet. Not to add any additional sugar was easy, but things like jams that have 45% to 50% of sugar in them had to be removed as well. Bread had to go and all soft drinks (=sugary drinks) had to go. It was quite an eye opener.

Maintenance of your no sugar program

In the meantime we shop at the periphery of a grocery store as follows.

Start at the deli: your low fat cheese varieties, roasted chicken or turkey breast or lean ham if you choose are all found here.
Go on to the meats: lean cuts of beef, pork, chicken, lamb will be found here.
Fish and seafood: salmon, sole, cod, halibut, trout, mussels, shrimp will be there to choose from.

Continue at the vegetarian section: tofu, tempeh and veggie burgers. It is debatable how valuable soy products really are. About 95% of the soy crop is genetically engineered, and textured soy protein has nothing to do with a “natural” product.
At the dairy section you will look for 1% milk, almond milk or pea protein milk, yogurt, low fat cottage cheese, and more low fat variety of cheeses.

More shopping

The bakery section is also at the periphery, but you will want to be very discerning, as these are products which offer not much more than dense carbohydrates, trans fats, and a lack of minerals. The dozen bagels will not offer you much nutritional bang for your buck!
Finally you will arrive at the produce department. You will likely go for all the green leaf choices like leaf lettuce, kale, chard, spinach, as well as the cabbage varieties (broccoli, green cabbage, sui choy, napa cabbage and cauliflower).

More shopping for the right foods

The other ones on your list are the intensely colored non- root vegetables like tomatoes, red and green peppers, also mushrooms, which are a power house of minerals, green beans, asparagus, as well as onions and garlic. You will also buy your fruit: apples, oranges, grapefruit and other citrus, pears, berries, and pineapple. You will go easy on mango, papaya, and banana because of their high sugar content.

The deep frozen section can be your best ally

Look for deep frozen vegetables, fruit, and fish as well as meats. As vegetables are quickly readied for the freezer, their vitamin content can be higher than that of a vegetable that has spent 8 days in transit from the field to the produce department. The deep frozen section also gives you access to a lot of variety. You’ll be able to enjoy some strawberries, even when they are not in season. Read the labels, as some fruit have been packaged with sugar syrup. Look for the varieties, where no sugar has been added. The frozen section also contains some highly processed items: deep-fried foods and dessert selections, which may not be an accessory to full health, but rather to an empty wallet.

Canned foods

Canned foods can be useful, as long as you are dealing with fruit that are canned in their juices and not in sugar syrup. The vegetables are less valuable in vitamins than their deep frozen counterparts. Watch out for varieties, where less salt is added. The label will tell you” low sodium”. With canned products it is also important to pay attention to the can. Many of the cans are lined with a BPH product, which is an immune disruptor. Look out for cans, where the label clearly states that they are “BPH free.”

Some more staple foods

You will not have to navigate all the aisles, except for your cleaning products and your cosmetics. There are some staples, which you will also require: olive oil, some olives, almonds or macadamia nuts (raw or dry roasted). The one cereal product, which is valuable, are coarse rolled oats and some pot barley. Both varieties carry a lot of fibre, which makes them very useful food staples. Avoid the “quick cooking” or “instant” oats. Due to the processing, the carbohydrates are absorbed a lot faster and consequently trigger a higher insulin response.

Shopping for drinks

You will wonder about drinks next. Having passed the colas, ginger ales and other sugar sodas you may eye the diet drinks. Beware of drinks sweetened with aspartame. There is increasing evidence that phenylalanine (brand names: Aspartame, NutraSweet and Sweet’N Low) is not a “harmless” sweetener. Newer research has shown that it can cause gastroesophageal reflux (=GERD) and migraine headaches.

Stevia, a sweetener from a South American plant, does not have harmful effects. It is safe to use as a sweetener and does not cause an insulin response. You are best served with mineral water, purified drinking water, herb teas, tea or coffee. Fruit juices do have vitamins and minerals, but they are high in sugar causing an insulin release.

No canned fruit juices

You would not really eat 3 large apples in one sitting. So why insist on drinking 8 oz. of apple juice? You’ll ingest all the sugar and forgo the fibre! You’ll also notice, that a lot of fruit juices have been mixed with sugar, water, artificial flavor, some color, and as an apology some vitamin C is often on the list of ingredients. They are appearing on the shelves as “a good source of vitamin C”. In reality we are dealing with flavored, colored sugar water. Use your own judgment, whether you want to spend your dollars on this selection!

Convenience and snack foods

In the aisle adjacent to the pop you will very likely encounter a huge selection of convenience and snack foods. They have several things in common: you have met them on TV, some will be high in starches and fat (chips), others will be high in starches, sugar, and fat (cookies, donuts, cream pastries), and we are dealing with trans fats. Do take time to read the listed ingredients, and then decide, whether you and those who eat in your household deserve nutritional garbage. You have now completed your round trip in the supermarket.

Summary of your round trip in the supermarket

To sum up the most important facts, remember the following:

  • Do most of your shopping at the periphery of the store.
  • Look for fresh products – the less processed, the better.
  • Read the ingredients on labels.
  • Stay away from nutri-garbage
  • Buy the majority of your fruit and vegetables as organic produce. There are exceptions like raspberries, blackberries, asparagus, avocado where the regular produce is clean. But strawberries, bell peppers, broccoli, celery, grapes, spinach and tomatoes are all part of the crop that has been sprayed. Beware of the “Dirty Dozen“!
What To Do To Stop Eating Junk Food

What To Do To Stop Eating Junk Food

Conclusion

When you cut out junk food and adopt healthy food habits , you will loose a few pounds, which is natural. The sugar and starchy food you cut out had calories that you are no longer consuming. This makes you loose some weight. But you will feel more energy, because you are feeding your body what it needs. You no longer get those hypoglycemic episodes that made you tired before. Essentially you switched from the Standard North American diet that includes junk food to a Mediterranean-type diet. This type of a diet has been found to be anti-inflammatory. It prevents arthritis, diabetes, heart attacks and strokes. It may also prevent some cancers, but various studies on cancer get different results. If you follow this type of a diet without junk food you will live a longer life and stay healthier.

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Nov
26
2017

Prevent Cancer, Cut Sugar

If you want to prevent cancer, cut sugar! This is the message of an Oct. 13, 2017 study. The research team had done experiments for 9 years, when they concluded that it was refined sugar that caused spontaneous mutations of RAS proteins. RAS proteins are responsible for cell growth. When a substance like sugar turns them on all the time, they can cause mutations that lead to cancer. In this article research concentrated on yeast cells, and the publication is in Nature Publication. The CNN publication describes this in simpler language. Essentially the research team found that a sugar molecule, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, was responsible in obese patients and in diabetic patients to mutate a RAS protein, which as a result can turn into an oncogene causing cancer.

Evidence that sugar causes obesity and type 2 diabetes

  1. A September 2017 US study followed 41 children age 9 to 18 with initial fructose consumption of >50 g/d. The treatment of the children consisted of an isocaloric fructose restriction of only 9 days. Following that their liver fat content decreased from 7.2% to 3.8%. In addition intraabdominal fat decreased and new fat production was reduced from 68% to 26%. The authors pointed out that reduction of sugar consumption in obese children was a very effective treatment tool.
  2. This August 2017 study from Helsinki followed 71 obese males for 12 weeks. They consumed 75 grams of added fructose every day in addition to their normal food intake. The liver fat content increased and cardiovascular risk factors worsened as blood tests showed. The investigators concluded that the adverse cardiometabolic effects were a result of the added fructose. They were not secondary to the weight gain (a theory in the past).
  3. This February 2017 study from the US the Taiwanese Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan was also of interest. It consisted of a 5-year long study involving middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. The result was that patients with more physical activity, a better diet and a higher score regarding psychosocial health did much better with respect to managing their diabetes. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is particularly important for the elderly to prevent diabetes.

Evidence that obese patients and type 2 diabetics get more cancer

  1. In this 2016 study from Poland the effect of diabetes causing various cancers was under investigation. The authors pointed out that worldwide in 2014 there were 387 million cases of type 2 diabetes and it was still rising. When they looked at correlation between various cancers and type 2 diabetes they found that diabetes had the strongest association between pancreatic cancer and liver cancer. But there was also an association between diabetes and breast cancer, bladder cancer and kidney cancer. Head and neck cancers were more frequent among diabetics. Some diabetic medications made cancer frequencies worse, others, like metformin made them better.
  2. In this March 2016 article from the BJC (British Journal of Cancer) cancer frequencies were correlated to patients with obesity and to patients with diabetes. Researchers found that some types of cancer correlated with obesity, whereas others did with diabetes and not with obesity. They found that type 1 diabetes had its own set of cancer risks while type 2 diabetes had a different set of cancers that correlated to the disease

More on cancer risks in diabetics

  1.  A 2015 study from Malaysia with an 11-year follow-up describes that type 2 diabetes had increased in the population which researchers studied. The investigators concentrated on a female population where they found a strong correlation between diabetes and endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer and cervical cancer. In a group of 860 cancer patients they found that 26.5% were diabetics. They were at a much higher risk of getting these cancers.
  2. A 2016 study from the US examined 2,836 veterans who had problems with their esophagus. 1,704 received a diagnosis of esophageal adenocarcinoma, 1,132 of them had gastroesophageal reflux disorder. Among the cancer patients there were 30.8% diabetics. The researchers calculated that for diabetics there was a 2.2-fold higher risk of developing esophageal cancer. The only other risk factor they could identify was nicotine dependence, which showed an association with a 1.7-fold risk of to develop esophageal cancer.

Evidence that sugar causes cancer

As explained earlier research found that fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is responsible in yeast cells to lead to RAS mutations. Human cells have the same metabolism as yeast cells, and they also have RAS protein and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is important for cancer development in humans. Yeast cells are diploid cells as are human cells. But yeast cells are not human organisms, so the parallel stops at one point.

  1. A 2014 study from China showed that fructose-bisphosphate aldolase was a marker for lung cancer metastases. This enzyme breaks down fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Depletion of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A reduces cell motility of cancer cells and the ability to cause more tumors. In other words, the key for cancer cells to thrive is the presence of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate.
  2. In this 2013 study from Beijing gastric cancer biopsies research examined these samples for fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, the enzyme that breaks down fructose-1,6-bisphosphate.

The enzyme was under expressed in 86.2% of the gastric cancer biopsies. This meant that glycolysis was stimulated in the cancer cells. An overabundance of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate caused tumor cells to get into an active phase and to metastasize.

Discussion of why sugar causes cancer

I have previously discussed this topic in a blog 3 ½ years ago. At the time a few steps were missing from the knowledge we have today. Nothing has become different regarding the connection of sugar overconsumption and the risk of developing cancer. First of all, we have learnt that fructose overconsumption or sugar overconsumption leads to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate in the blood, which stimulates RAS proteins to mutate and stimulate oncogenes to cause cancer. In addition, people who are overweight, obese or have diabetes have too much insulin production, which can also lead to cancer causation. Finally, obese people have a lot of very active kinins in the blood that can cause cancer as well. In conclusion, what has changed between March 2014 and now is that we have a lot more detail why things happen the way they do. Connections that used to be obscure have now a rational explanation.

The message is that we need to cut out refined sugar from our diet, cut out starchy foods and cut out processed foods. This will improve our metabolism and reduce our risk of getting cancer. We will also lose weight, which I have experienced in 2011 when I lost 50 pounds over 3 months. What did I do? I was just doing what I described to you: cutting out sugar, starchy foods and processed foods.

Prevent Cancer, Cut Sugar

Prevent Cancer, Cut Sugar

Conclusion

Want to reduce your risk for getting cancer drastically? Then cut out sugar and starchy foods along with processed foods (which have too much sugar in it).  Strangely enough it was only now that researchers have found the missing link. The culprit is fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, a metabolic byproduct from sugar consumption. It stimulates a RAS gene, which can mutate, turn into an oncogene and eventually cause cancer. This fact was not known a few years ago. But the knowledge that cancer can occur due to diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance goes back a long time.

We need to learn from science: cut out refined sugar, starchy foods and processed foods. This will change insulin resistance into insulin sensitivity. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate will not accumulate, but get normally metabolized. This way fructose-1,6-bisphosphate does not pose a problem for RAS proteins. Your insulin level will normalize, the previous kinin overproduction will disappear and your risk for cancer will decrease.

We have allowed the sugar industry to undermine our health for too long. It is time to take back the control over our lives, assess our food habits and make the necessary changes.

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Sep
23
2017

Close Diabetes Control Prolongs Life

 

A 20-year study showed that close diabetes control prolongs life. A study divided 160 people with diabetes into two groups. The one group continued to get standard care. Yet the other group received a multi targeted, aggressive treatment protocol. As a result after 20 years the group with the intensive treatment protocol lived 7.9 years longer than the group with the standard treatment.

Dr. Oluf Pederson was the senior investigator of the physician team that followed the diabetes group. He said that they concentrated on a number of known adverse factors and treated them aggressively. These factors were first of all high blood glucose values and clotting risks, also high blood pressure and high triglycerides and in addition cholesterol values. Behavior modification was the therapeutic method to get people with risk factors to exercise more, adopt a healthy diet and stop smoking. Medication in select cases also played a role.

More details about the study

The intervention of intensive treatment lasted 8 years. After that the patients were still in a follow-up study for 13 years. At the beginning of the study patients were on average 55 years old and were borderline obese.

The investigation team screened for complications of diabetes. This included screening for kidney disease, heart disease and blindness. Dr. Joel Zonszein, the director of the New York Clinical Diabetes Center at Montefiore Medical Center said: ”These results are impressive and most patients do not receive the correct treatment, according to national surveys.”

Other studies about diabetes  

Foreign studies

Study from Croatia
  • Another study from Croatia involved 200 patients. It concentrated on patients who did not respond to metformin. Physicians used alternative treatment modalities, and they observed and measured blood sugars and hemoglobin A1C in the following 6 months. The study concluded that those patients who received aggressive treatment of their condition did better than those who did not receive the same vigorous approach.
Study from Japan
  • This Japanese study documented that female patients with type-2 diabetes developed kidney damage earlier than their male counterparts.  Consequently, the investigators pointed out how important it is to treat diabetes aggressively to avoid kidney damage.
Study from Singapore
  • This 2016 study from Singapore analyzed retroactively the impact of diabetes on the long-term survival after coronary bypass grafting (CABG).  5720 consecutive patients had their isolated first CABG surgery between 1982 and 1999. The mean follow-up was 13 years. 34.6% of the patients had diabetes, 51% had high blood pressure and 46.6% had elevated blood lipids. The initial mortality after the CABG surgery was 2.4% in the diabetic group and 1.8% in the non-diabetic group. 20-year survival rates following CABG surgery were 30.9% in diabetics and 49.2% in the non-diabetics, an 18.3% difference. The 20-year freedom from cardiac mortality rates was 56% in diabetics and 68.4% in non-diabetics. Other risk factors that led to cardiac mortality were the following: female gender (1.43-fold risk), diabetes (1.51-fold risk), previous heart attack (1.54-fold risk) and a low left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 35% (2.6-fold risk). The conclusion from this study was that long-term survival in diabetics following CABG surgery was much lower than that of non-diabetic controls. Hence the key to improving long-term survival for diabetics is to treat comorbidities like high blood pressure and elevated lipids aggressively as well as getting blood sugars and hemoglobin A1C values under control.

US studies

  • In this US study 558 youth (age less than 21) between February 2012 to July 2015 received follow-up. Between 40% and 50% of these diabetics needed insulin to improve their diabetes. Unfortunately their diabetes showed poor control, as their high hemoglobin A1C values indicated. Median HbA1C was 6.7%, 8.5%, 9.6%, and 9.7% in those with disease duration less than 1 year, 1-2 years, 2-3 years and less than 4  In other words, the longer the young patients had diabetes, the less seriously they took their treatment. Only 33% treated their high blood pressure and only 11% their elevated blood lipids. Microalbuminuria, an indicator of diabetic kidney disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were present in 5% to 6% of these young diabetic patients. The authors came to the conclusion that there were serious gaps in treating these young diabetics. Further follow-up data of the same group of patients in the coming years will provide further data. In conclusion, the new hemoglobin A1C ranges of 3.8% to 4.9% as the new normal range explains why these youths who do not treat their diabetes properly are at high risk to develop complications from their poorly controlled diabetes.
Heart attacks and erectile dysfunction
  • Heart attacks are more common among patients with uncontrolled diabetes. This US study classified diabetics according to the tightness of their diabetes control. Researchers found examining 606 men and 606 women with diabetes that they could reduce their risk of a heart attack, if they controlled smoking, glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1C), systolic blood pressure, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The control of all these risk factors could contribute to the prevention of heart attacks. 35% of men and 45% of women could prevent having a heart attack. A laxer control still would prevent 36% of heart attacks in men and 38% in women. A very aggressive diabetes control could prevent 51% of heart attacks in men and 61% in women. Most noteworthy: close diabetes control prolongs life.
  • Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a big problem among diabetic men. This study from Seattle shows the investigation of 136, 306 men with erectile dysfunction. 19, 236 of these men had diabetes prior to their ED problem. Over a two-year observation period diabetic men had much worse ED problems. As a result they needed to receive secondary line treatments  like penile suppositories or injectables. Others needed tertiary treatments like penile prostheses. In those whose diabetes control was good, oral agents as first-line therapies were usually sufficient.
More studies about risks and benefits of lifestyle
  • Middle-aged women with diabetes have a 4- to 5-fold higher risk for developing heart attacks while men do not show such a higher risk. It is probably particularly important for women to control diabetes when they are diagnosed with it to reduce the risk of coming down with a heart attack.
  • In 2011 Taylor from Newcastle University showed in a group of diabetes patients that he could cure diabetes permanently with an extremely low calorie diet. The trial was simple: he took overweight or obese patients with diabetes and put them on a starvation diet of 600-700 calories per day for 8 weeks. Consequently 43% of diabetic patients received a permanent cure of their diabetes. More info: http://nethealthbook.com/news/cure-diabetes-permanently/

 

Close Diabetes Control Prolongs Life

Close Diabetes Control Prolongs Life

Conclusion

The new hemoglobin A1C ranges that are desirable are between 3.8% to 4.9%. When diabetics bring their hemoglobin A1C level into this range, they do not get complications from their previously poorly controlled diabetes. Close diabetes control prolongs life. But as can be seen from a brief review of the literature physicians tend to be lax, patients are lax, and diabetes is often not well controlled. This leads to erectile dysfunction in males, to heart attacks and kidney failure in both sexes. Blindness and painful diabetic neuropathy are also common complications of poorly controlled diabetes. Amputations from clogged arteries are also among the complications. “Close diabetes control prolongs life” is the new mantra that everybody with diabetes needs to follow.

Lifestyle changes control diabetes and prolong life

As stated above Dr. Taylor from Great Britain has shown that a brief 600 to 700 calorie diet can cure 43% of diabetic patients permanently. Quit smoking, bring the glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1C) into the normal range, control your systolic blood pressure as well as your total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Do all these things, exercise regularly, and your diabetes will be well controlled. Remember: close diabetes control prolongs life!

Jul
15
2017

Getting Rid Of Sugar

Scientific papers describe how unhealthy added sugar is, so getting rid of sugar in your diet is the answer.

An article was published in CNN that describes a one-month sugar detox program.

Brooke Alpert, the co-author of the book “The Sugar Detox: Lose the Sugar, Lose the Weight — Look and Feel Great” describes the details of a sugar detox program.

 The first three days of sugar detox

You need to go cold turkey for three days to eliminate any sugar to break the addiction cycle. During this time you may experience anxiety, sugar craving and moodiness.

You must not consume any added sugars during the first 3 days, but also keep away from fruit. Avoid starchy vegetables. This includes corn, sweet potatoes, peas and butternut squash. You also need to avoid dairy, because of the milk sugar in it. In addition avoid grains and alcohol. “You’re basically eating protein, vegetables and healthy fats”, says Alpert. You would enjoy a breakfast with 3 eggs any style. Lunch contains 6 oz. of poultry, tofu or fish. Add a green salad. For dinner your helpings are bigger, but it would be similar to lunch, perhaps with added vegetables. Snacks can be 1 oz. of nuts or a few slices of bell peppers with hummus. Your beverages: unsweetened tea, black coffee or water.

Sweeteners are not allowed according to Alpert. Dr. Robert Lustig, professor of Pediatrics and member of the Institute for Health Policy Studies at the University of California, San Francisco agrees. He said that artificial sweeteners cause you to store more fat. Dr. Lustig added: “You also end up overeating later on to compensate for the increased energy storage”.

Day four of sugar detox

On day 4 an apple is reintroduced. It will now taste a lot sweeter, because in the past the natural fruit sugar taste was suppressed by refined sugar. Full fat, unsweetened cheese and yogurt are also part of the diet. Alpert added: “Fat, fiber and protein slow the absorption of sugar, so taking out fat from dairy will make you absorb sugar faster.” Higher sugar content vegetables like carrots and snow peas and high-fiber crackers are introduced in the second half of the first week. Three glasses of red wine can also be added for those who like it.

Second week of sugar detox 

Add a serving of berries that are full of antioxidants. Also add an extra serving of dairy. More starchy vegetables like winter squash and yams can be added.

Third week of sugar detox

Barley, quinoa and oatmeal can now be added back. Grapes and clementines are now also allowable. Another glass of red wine can be added for those who like wine. One ounce of dark chocolate per day can also be added. “Week three should be quite livable,” Alpert said.

Week four of sugar detox

You now can have two starches per day, like bread and rice. In addition you can enjoy high-fiber crackers. You can have 5 glasses of red wine per week. You may want to eat a sandwich. Once you have completed 31 days no fruit is off-limits. You can allow yourself the occasional indulgences like an ice cream or a piece of cake at a birthday party. “Because the addictive behavior is gone, having ice cream once or twice will not send you back to square one. The whole purpose is to give people control and ownership and a place for these foods in our life,” Alpert said.

Weight loss with sugar detox

There can be a lot of weight loss with a sugar detox; depending on how much sugar the person was consuming before the detox started. Alpert recalled that of 80 subjects who tested the sugar detox people lost between 5 and 20 pounds within 31 days. Many people reported that their belly fat was going and the belts had to be tightened. There were other things participants noted: brighter eyes, fewer dark circles around the eyes, clearer skin, more energy and not as many mood swings.

Many people are not properly educated; they reduce fat intake, but add sugar and start gaining weight. By cutting out sugar and adding healthy fats in their diet, they now feel satisfied. The sugar craving has disappeared.

Side effects of sugar detox

You may feel grumpy and weak. This likely is due to low blood sugar and a piece of fruit will help you overcome this. In other cases it could be due to too little fluid intake and when you drink some water, this feeling will pass. Make sure you have supportive family and friends through the first three-day of sugar detox. “You need people around you to help you be successful,” Dr. Lustig said. “The whole family has to do it together.” Some irritability is expected due to sugar and caffeine withdrawal. This will pass and get better with every day. There are persons who should not go on this program: diabetics, people who take medicine to control blood sugar and extreme athletes. Pregnant women should also not follow a sugar detox program.

Why it is important to limit sugar intake

The American Heart Association (AHA) clearly spelled out what the limits are for added sugars:

For men: a daily dose of 9 teaspoons of sugar from all foods,

For women: a daily dose of 6 teaspoons of sugar from all foods.

When you start reading labels, which I started to do since 2001, you realize that it is very easy to exceed these daily limits. What does this do? It makes your pancreas produce more insulin than is good for you. You start switching your metabolism into the metabolic syndrome, you gain weight, and you get inflammation. This is what the AHA is concerned about. You start developing high blood pressure; get high LDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, and atheromatous plaques in your coronary and brain arteries. Eventually you come down with a heart attack or a stroke.

In the last 100 years sugar consumption per person has skyrocketed.

This has led to a disbalance of our diet and it is because of this that we are facing the obesity wave now. All I am saying is replace sugar with stevia extract, which to my knowledge does not have the undesirable side effects that other sweeteners do and eat a Mediterranean type diet, which we know is balanced.

Watch the maximum recommended sugar intake per day set by the American Heart Association and balance your meals, and you will do a lot better than on the Standard American diet. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to be anti-inflammatory.

Getting Rid Of Sugar

Getting Rid Of Sugar

Conclusion

We learnt about how a sugar detox can get you off sugar addiction. I also summarized why it is important to keep sugar consumption within limits set by the American Heart Association. Too much sugar can derange our metabolism, which is called metabolic syndrome. This can lead to diabetes. Eating a Mediterranean diet and keeping sugar intake low is the pathway to good health. It also keeps inflammation at bay.

Jun
24
2017

Lower Blood Sugar Prevents Diabetes

Conventional medicine has ignored for several decades that lower blood sugar prevents diabetes. After this topic has been reevaluated, it has become clear what should be normal blood sugar values. Another evaluation concentrates around the hemoglobin A1C range.

In 2016 UCLA researchers reported that 46% of adults in California are either prediabetic or have diabetes.

But 33% of young adults (age 18 to 39) also have prediabetes.

What is worse is the fact that patients with prediabetes get complications that are normally associated with diabetes. These include kidney disease, retinal problems with loss of vision, neuropathy, hardening of the arteries and cancer.

Key to preventing this from happening is to recognize that prediabetes is already the beginning of diabetes. Not only should diabetes be prevented, but prediabetes as well.

Determination of prediabetes and diabetes

The conventional test for diabetes is a fasting blood sugar.

Prediabetes

Fasting blood sugar between 100 and 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) was considered to be prediabetes.

Diabetes

126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests indicates that you have diabetes.

Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test

This test gives an average of blood sugar over 2 to 3 months. A hemoglobin A1C test below 5.7% was considered normal, between 5.7 and 6.4 percent indicated prediabetes and at 6.5 or higher on two separate tests meant you have diabetes.

Re-evaluating normal ranges to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes

Many researchers have said that the normal values from the guidelines for blood sugar or for glycated hemoglobin A1C are too high. This is the reason why diabetic complications developed even with prediabetes.

At the 22nd Annual World Congress on Anti-Aging Medicine In Las Vegas (Dec. 10-14, 2014) Dr. Piliszek stated that the normal range for hemoglobin A1C is skewed in the medical literature. It should be: 3.8% to 4.9%. This is very important to know for diabetics and any caregiver who looks after diabetes patients. If you are satisfied with a hemoglobin A1C of 6.0 as still being “normal”, the diabetic patient has the risk of dying prematurely of a heart attack or a stroke. According to the new guidelines even a patient whose hemoglobin A1C is 5.5 has diabetes with the new guidelines and needs to be treated aggressively to prevent complications associated with diabetes. Conventional guidelines would have considered this patient to be normal.

A 1999 study made it clear that patients with a blood sugar of more than 85 mg/dL were at risk of developing diabetes complications. About 2000 patients with fasting blood sugars of more than 85 mg/dL were observed over 22 years. About 40% of them died of heart attacks or strokes!

The authors concluded that fasting blood glucose in the upper normal range was an independent risk factor of cardiovascular death.

New guidelines

Prediabetes is not a separate diagnosis, but is mild early diabetes, which is reversible with aggressive treatment. Dietary changes (cutting out sugar and refined carbs) are often effective. In some cases the addition of metformin may be required.

The new normal ranges are:

Fasting blood sugar of 85 mg/dL or less is normal.

Hemoglobin A1C of 3.8% to 4.9% is the new normal range.

These values are based on observing patients over a long period of time and seeing whether or not they develop complications from diabetes.

Uncontrolled diabetes leads to complications like damage to the lining of the arteries in all the key organs. It is the cause for the following conditions: kidney damage (nephropathy), eye damage (retinopathy), brain and nerve damage (neuropathy), as well as heart attacks and strokes (vascular damage).

Patients often end up with dialysis when kidney failure has set in. Retinopathy causes blindness and neuropathy leads to excruciating pain. Heart attacks and strokes often cause premature death. Those who ingest a high-glycemic diet have a 49% higher risk of getting lung cancer than those with a low-glycemic diet as this link from the MD Anderson Cancer Center showed.

Calorie restriction

A research group found that calorie restriction reduced fasting insulin levels in a group of overweight men and women.

Another study showed that restrained eating patterns lower fasting glucose and postprandial (after meals) glucose. It also improved insulin sensitivity in normal weight individuals.

Some practical hints about diets to treat diabetes

  1. The obvious fact is that excessive sugar intake is harmful. But in addition a drastic reduction of refined carbs is also needed, as they just turn into sugar within half an hour of ingesting them. Cut out potatoes, pasta, and bread. You may have a slice of rye bread or full grain bread occasionally. This type of diet is called a low-glycemic index diet. As indicated earlier a study from the MD Anderson Cancer Center has shown that lung cancer is more common the higher the glycemic index is and is also more common in diabetics.
  2. A Mediterranean diet has been shown to be anti-inflammatory. As diabetes and prediabetes are associated with chronic inflammation, it is useful to go on a diet that counters inflammation. The DASH diet, which was developed for high blood pressure patients, is also anti-inflammatory. Here are a few examples of snacks that may be helpful.
  3. Include fish and fish oil supplements in your diet. These contain omega-3 fatty acids, which are anti-inflammatory. Eat lots of vegetables and salads as they contain healthy bioflavonoids and antioxidant vitamins. This stabilizes the lining of your arteries.
Lower Blood Sugar Prevents Diabetes

Lower Blood Sugar Prevents Diabetes

Conclusion

The old blood sugar and hemoglobin A1C guidelines are outdated. Instead new guidelines based on actual measurements and clinical trials that showed no complications of prediabetes on the long term have replaced them.

A fasting blood sugar of 85 mg/dL or less is normal. A hemoglobin A1C of 3.8% to 4.9% is now the new normal range.

The doctor needs to be more aggressive about early nutritional intervention and possibly include metformin as well to restore insulin sensitivity. It is no longer appropriate to allow complications of diabetes like nephropathy, retinopathy or neuropathy to develop. Unfortunately food manufacturers still overload processed food with sugar. Each patient needs to be vigilant about the food he/she eats. Low glycemic nutrition is the mantra to follow. Also stick to natural, unprocessed foods instead of the highly processed foods that populate the shelves of the supermarkets.

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Feb
04
2017

Benefits Of The Ketogenic Diet

Dr. Jeff Volek, PhD, RD gave a talk that clarified the benefits of the ketogenic diet. He is a professor at the Department of Human Sciences at The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, and teaches in the Kinesiology Program. His lecture was part of the 24th Annual World Conference on Anti-Aging Medicine in Las Vegas, Dec. 9 to 11, 2016.

There were 58 slides, some of them very detailed. I will summarize as best as I can what the presentation was all about.

History of diets

Dr. Volek stated that there were unintended consequences when the low fat/ high carb diet was introduced in the 1970’s and 1980’s. Ancel Keys, a physiologist had proposed in his diet heart hypothesis that saturated fat was the culprit that caused heart attacks.

As a result all major health agencies recommended the low fat/high carb diet. Obesity, diabetes, heart attacks, and strokes were the consequences. Another offshoot later from this was the statin craze where everybody was put on statins as high cholesterol was symptomatically treated. Nothing changed the diabetes and obesity wave and heart attacks and strokes continued to kill the affected persons. Among performance athletes the hypothesis was formed that carb loading would increase muscle performance. Researchers showed evidence that carb loading would improve performance. But athletes were dissatisfied with prediabetes and metabolic problems. Both the average consumer as well as the performance athlete noted that they felt better on a low carb/high fat diet. This is what the ketogenic diet is all about.

Diet heart hypothesis

With the diet heart hypothesis the saturated fat was removed from the diet and replaced by vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid. Dr. Volek explained that blood tests and other investigations were done on people who ingested the low saturated fat/high carb diet. The question was whether this would reduce heart attack rates and deaths by lowering serum cholesterol.

The Minnesota Coronary Experiment was a double blind study, which answered this question.

Cholesterol was reduced in the experimental group. But there was no reduction of heart attacks or strokes compared to a control group. Of concern was the large amount of refined carbohydrate content with the low fat diet. This essentially was responsible for the obesity and diabetes wave. The excess sugar turned into fat deposits and to insulin resistance, which caused diabetes. The low saturated fat/high carb diet of the 1960’s to 1990’s did not reduce heart attacks and strokes. To the contrary: the obesity/type 2 diabetes wave it had caused increased mortality from strokes and heart attacks further.

Laboratory tests on low fat/high carb diet versus the ketogenic diet

Forget hypotheses for a moment. Let us review what the different diets do in terms of lab tests. In a study where 40 overweight people with metabolic syndrome were put on a low fat diet or a low carb/ketogenic diet, the following blood test results were found. There were 20 patients in each group.

  1. Low fat/high carb diet

Triglycerides in the blood went down by 20%, saturated fatty acids by 22%. LDL (the bad cholesterol) rose by 4%. Insulin levels went down by 17% and leptin levels also down by 17%. Glucose levels were down by 1%.

  1. Low carb/ketogenic diet

Triglycerides went down by 52%, saturated fatty acids by 57%. LDL (the bad cholesterol) went down by 18%. Insulin levels went down by 49% and leptin levels by 42%. Glucose levels were down by 11%.

In this group of 20 subjects for each group the body mass index went down by 5% for the low fat diet and by 10% for the ketogenic diet after 3 months. The abdominal fat went down in that time by 12% for the low fat diet and by 20% for the ketogenic diet. The conclusion from these laboratory results and from the body measurements is that the low fat diet is showing some results of weight loss, but the ketogenic diet has superior results. The same is true for the blood tests. Only the ketogenic diet showed reduction of 7 key anti-inflammatory markers. In contrast, the low fat diet did not trigger the production of a single anti-inflammatory marker.

Anti-inflammatory benefits of the ketogenic diet

A 2008 study showed that several anti-inflammatory markers were greatly reduced from the ketogenic diet while a low fat diet did not show such a reduction.

As this 2009 study showed the LDL particles were getting bigger under the influence of a ketogenic diet, but they were getting smaller with a low fat diet.

Large LDL particles are also called pattern A particles, while small LDL particles are also called pattern B particles.

As this link shows there is good evidence that small LDL particles oxidize easier and are more atherogenic (causing hardening of the arteries). This means they lead to hardening of the arteries easier translating into heart attacks and strokes down the road. It is one thing that a ketogenic diet leads to larger LDL particles, which are more resistant to oxygenation. But it is another good thing that this diet is also anti-inflammatory. Overall this means that a ketogenic diet is counteracting the development of heart attacks and strokes.

Are saturated fatty acids in the diet causing heart attacks or strokes?

Dr. Volek discussed several large studies that have investigated this question. One of these studies discussed was a metaanalysis from 2010. Like all the other studies it showed that saturated fatty acids do not cause heart attacks and strokes. This is the secret behind the Inuit and the Eskimo diet. It is a high fat and meat diet. Lots of seafood is consumed as well, which provides omega-3 fatty acids.

Dr. Volek pointed out that if you replace a certain percentage, let’s say 5% of saturated fatty acids with carbohydrates, this would cause 7% more heart attacks. He showed literature evidence to back this up. What causes increased heart attacks and strokes is more refined carbs in your diet (sugar and starchy foods!).

Do saturated fatty acids in your blood increase the risk for disease?

Dr. Volek showed several slides with references to various publications. Elevated saturated fatty acids in the blood cause a higher risk of getting a heart attack, heart failure, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. But this does not happen with a ketogenic diet. The values of the saturated fatty acids in the blood are 4% lower when a ketogenic diet is started. With a low carb diet the calories derived from carbs are 12%. In comparison a low fat diet has 56% of carbs. Protein content in the low fat diet is 20%, in the ketogenic diet 28%. Saturated fat content in the low fat diet is 24%, in the ketogenic diet it is 59%. Let’s assume that both diets are kept at 1500 Cal. per day. Then the saturated fat content for the low fat diet is 12 grams and the carbohydrate content is 208 grams. For the ketogenic diet these values are as follows: 36 grams of saturated fat and 45 grams of carbohydrates. Despite a threefold higher saturated fatty acid intake the circulating level of saturated fatty acids in the blood were decreased by 4%.

You are what you eat, but go easy on carbs

Dr. Volek pointed out that what makes you healthy or sick is how many carbs you include in your diet. If you follow a ketogenic diet with only 12% carbs you are much better off than when you follow a diet like the low fat diet with 56% of carbs. The higher the carb percentage in your food, the higher the production of saturated fatty acids in your system and the higher the storage of saturated fatty acids in your body fat. Conversely, the lower the carb percentage in your food is the higher the oxidation of saturated fatty acids will be. In other words the saturated fatty acids disappear from your blood. Also, with a ketogenic diet the storage of saturated fatty acids is lower in your body fat. With a low fat diet your insulin resistance increases, while with a ketogenic diet insulin resistance decreases. The difference in calories in these two diets (56% derived from carbs in a low fat diet versus 12% derived from carbs in a ketogenic diet) explains why the obesity/type 2 diabetes wave has developed and why heart attacks and strokes still top the mortality figures today.

Endurance athletes win medals on a ketogenic diet

Dr. Volek shared a few cases of world-class athletes that are on a ketogenic diet. They did well for themselves winning medals. Tim Olsen won the Western States 100-mile endurance run from Squaw Valley to Auburn, CA in 2012. Zach Bitter was the 100-mile track record holder in 2015. Mike Morton won the American 24-hour distance running record for 172 miles. Two Tour De France bicyclists made first and second place, Chris Froome (first place) and Romain Bardet (second place).

Sports teams also have been successful on a ketogenic diet: the Columbus Crew soccer team; New Zealand national rugby union team, commonly called the All Blacks; the Los Angeles Lakers basketball team are all on ketogenic diets.

Dr. Volek also pointed out that the ketogenic diet has even been tested for the military. A ketogenic diet restores metabolic health, gives the soldiers more endurance, more stress resistance and decreased fatigue.

Benefits Of The Ketogenic Diet

Benefits Of The Ketogenic Diet

Conclusion

A ketogenic diet is on the one end of the carb spectrum with only 10 to 12% of calories derived from carbs. At the other end is the low fat/high carb diet that caused the obesity/diabetes wave. The Mediterranean diet is in the center. The more you are able to cut down the carb percentage in your diet by cutting out sugar and starchy foods, the more your metabolism gets stabilized and this can be measured with blood tests. The ketogenic diet makes you lose weight down to your ideal weight and makes you gain more muscle strength and physical endurance. Sophisticated blood tests have shown that inflammatory markers go down on a ketogenic diet and factors that lead to hardening of arteries also go down. The end result on the ketogenic diet is that the rate of heart attacks and strokes goes down, something which was the original goal of Ancel Keys. It did not work, but it promoted a wave of diabetes and heart disease! Ironically adding saturated fat and other healthy fats while cutting down carbs will achieve disease prevention. This is the opposite of what Ancel Keys had recommended to do and what the processed food industry has mimicked. The ketogenic diet lowers mortality by cutting down heart attacks and strokes. With this knowledge it will finally be possible to get people on a path to better health.

More information about ketogenic diet: https://www.dietdoctor.com/low-carb/keto

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Jan
21
2017

Effects Of Metformin On The Gut Microbiome

Matthew Andry, MD talked about the effects of metformin on the gut microbiome. This talk was delivered at the 24th Annual World Congress on Anti-Aging Medicine. The congress took place from Dec. 9 to Dec. 11, 2016 in Las Vegas. A lot of the sessions that I attended dealt with the gut flora and how it affects our health. This talk belongs to the theme of what a healthy gut microbiome can do for us.

History of metformin

Dr. Andry is a clinical associate professor of the Indiana School Of Medicine.

He pointed out that metformin has been used for a long time for type 2 diabetes, particularly, if fasting insulin levels are high. Metformin is a biguanide, which was isolated from French lilac (also known as Goats Rue). In the middle ages this herb was used to treat “thirst and urination”. In retrospect we recognize these as symptoms of diabetes. Chemists were able to synthesize the active ingredient in this herb in the 1920’s. Since then it is known as metformin. Dr. Jean Stern was able to show in the 1950’s in clinical studies that Glucophage, the brand name of metformin was able to reduce blood sugar without raising insulin levels. Between 1977 and 1997 metformin enjoyed wide spread acceptance for treating diabetics. Several clinical investigators demonstrated that diabetic patients on metformin lived longer and had less heart attacks than patients who were treated otherwise.

Metformin is the first-line drug in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in children and adults. It is one of the most widely prescribed drugs throughout the world with 120 million prescriptions per year.

Off-label use of metformin

There are many other clinical conditions for which metformin have been found to be beneficial. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity, prediabetes, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are a few examples of off-label use of metformin. Metformin is also used as an anti-aging agent as it was found to elongate telomeres, which helps people to live longer. Metformin has been identified as a possible cancer prevention agent. In prostate cancer it was found to have an effect against prostate cancer stem cells. Without these cells prostate cancer does not recur after surgical removal.

Action of metformin

Metformin increases the action of an enzyme, AMPK, which leads to lipid oxidation and breakdown of fatty tissue (catabolism). In the liver the metabolic pathway of making sugar from fatty acids, called gluconeogenesis is inhibited. Metformin causes increased uptake of sugar into skeletal muscle tissue. This is the reason for the previously mentioned stabilization of blood sugar. Metformin has two beneficial effects on the liver. First it stabilizes insulin sensitivity. This means that a given amount of insulin has a larger effect on the liver. Secondly metformin decreases the toxic effect of fatty acids on the liver tissue. In other words metformin has a healing effect on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, a precursor to fatty liver and liver cirrhosis. Metformin also has an effect on the appetite center in the brain. It helps many obese and overweight people, but not all to lose weight. The mechanism for that effect is in the hypothalamus, where the appetite center is located. The neuropeptide Y gene expression in the hypothalamus is inhibited by metformin leading to reduced appetite.

Finally, metformin also normalizes the gut flora. This last point was the main focus of Dr. Andry’s talk.

Metformin and the gut

An animal experiment on mice showed in a study published in 2014 that metformin was stimulating the growth of a beneficial gut bacterium, Akkermansia. This is a mucin-degrading bacterium. But it also affects the metabolism of the host. The authors found that metformin increased the mucin-producing goblet cells.

Akkermansia muciniphila bacteria were fed to one group of mice. This group was on a high fat diet, but not on metformin. The mice showed control of their blood sugars, as did the metformin group. In other words manipulation of the gut flora composition could achieve control of the diabetic metabolism. The authors concluded that pharmacological manipulation of the gut microbiota using metformin in favor of Akkermansia might be a potential treatment for type 2 diabetes.

Effect of metformin on the gut flora

Akkermansia muciniphila bacteria comprise 3%-5% of the gut flora. It does not form spores and is strictly anaerobe, in other words oxygen destroys it. This is the reason why it is difficult to take it as a supplement. It is mostly growing in the mucous of the epithelium layer of the gut. The highest number of Akkermansia bacteria is found in the colon, lesser amounts in the small intestine of all mammalian species including the human race.

Here are the effects of metformin on Akkermansia:

  • Metformin increases the Akkermansia bacteria count both in a Petri dish as well as in the gut of experimental mice. This suggests that metformin acts like a growth factor for Akkermansia.
  • Metformin increased the count of Akkermansia bacteria by 18-fold up to a maximum of 12.44% (up from the normal 3-5%) of all of the gut bacteria.
  • Researchers observed that the mucin layer of the lining of the gut in metformin treated mice was thicker. This suggests that the thickness of the mucin layer plays a role in increasing the Akkermansia count.

Effect of the gut on the body’s metabolism

Other researchers have investigated how a high fat diet can change the composition of the gut bacteria, which in turn are altering the body’s metabolism. Essentially a shift in the bowel flora can increase the gut’s permeability. This is called leaky gut syndrome. It leads to absorption of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from bad bacteria in the gut. The end result is endotoxemia in the blood. This causes systemic inflammation in the body. Insulin resistance and obesity develop and this can be followed by type 2 diabetes. It is interesting to note that the effects of a high fat diet that led to these changes can be reversed by increasing Akkermansia bacteria in the gut or by treating with metformin.

An interesting mouse experiment showed that the changes that take place in the gut bacteria with cold exposure could be transferred to germ-free mice with no gut flora. This changed their metabolism proving that gut bacteria have profound influences on the metabolism. The fact that the gut bacteria have a profound influence on the metabolism is not only true for animals, but also for humans.

Akkermansia Facts

Here are a few facts about the Akkermansia bacteria.

  • The amounts of Akkermansia bacteria in the gut are inversely related to how fat we are. This is measured by the body mass index (BMI). Fat people have less Akkermansia in their guts.
  • A high fat diet lowers the amount of Akkermansia in the gut
  • Systemic inflammation is present with low Akkermansia counts
  • A high fat diet causes gut permeability (leaky gut syndrome).
  • Low levels of Akkermansia causes worsened severity of appendicitis and inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Low levels of Akkermansia causes fat storage (both in subcutaneous fat and visceral fat).
  • Low levels of Akkermansia cause insulin resistance (associated with diabetes) and high blood sugars.
  • Increased Akkermansia counts increase brown fat’s ability to burn calories, which leads to weight loss. Decreased Akkermansia counts lead to fat storage (weight gain).
  • Increased Akkermansia improves gut-barrier integrity
  • Increased Akkermansia reduces visceral and total body fat
  • Increased Akkermansia reduces synthesis of sugar in the liver (gluconeogenesis)

We have 10 times more bacteria in the gut than we have cells in our body. The Akkermansia percentage of the gut flora can be decreased from antibiotics or food that contains traces of antibiotics. If there is a lack of Akkermansia species, there is more gut permeability, causing LPS increase and causing increase of inflammation in the body. This translates into high blood pressure, heart attacks, strokes, and degenerative neurological diseases like Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease or MS. But it can also cause inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune diseases.

What increases Akkermansia?

We can increase Akkermansia bacteria in the gut by eating Oligofructose-enriched prebiotics. Oligofructose belongs into the inulin type soluble fibers. It is found in a variety of vegetables and plants. This includes onions, garlic, chicory, bananas, Jerusalem artichokes, navy beans and wheat. But wheat can be problematic. Clearfield wheat is the modern wheat variety which is now grown worldwide. It is much richer in gluten and can cause problems with gut permeability.

Eating lots of vegetables and fruit will give you enough of oligofructose to maintain a healthy percentage of Akkermansia in your gut bacteria.

Metformin as pointed out earlier can be used as pharmacotherapy. But it must be stressed that the use of metformin for dysmetabolic syndrome is off-label. There are real side effects of metformin. Lactic acidosis with an unusual tiredness, dizziness and severe drowsiness can develop. Also chills, muscle pain, blue/cold skin and fast/difficult breathing has been described. Slow/irregular heartbeat, vomiting, or diarrhea, stomach pains with nausea are also listed under side effects.

Effects Of Metformin On The Gut Microbiome

Effects Of Metformin On The Gut Microbiome

Conclusion

Our gut bacteria are important for us, more so than you may be aware of. An anaerobe bacterium, Akkermansia makes up 3%-5% of the gut flora. This bacterium lives in the mucous layer of the lining of the gut and ensures that the gut wall is tight. When these bacteria are lacking (due to consumption of junk foods) the gut wall becomes leaky, which is why this condition is called “leaky gut syndrome”. Irritating toxic substances can now leak into the blood stream and lipopolysaccharides are among them. This causes inflammation in the gut wall, but can go over into the blood vessels and the rest of the body including the brain. High blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, heart attacks, strokes, and degenerative neurological diseases like Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease or MS can develop from the inflammation. But it may also cause inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune diseases.

Eating lots of vegetables and fruit will give you enough of oligofructose to maintain a healthy percentage of Akkermansia in your gut bacteria. In particular, onions, garlic, chicory, bananas, Jerusalem artichokes and navy beans provide lots of oligofructose to support Akkermansia in your gut bacteria.

As pointed out earlier metformin can be used as pharmacotherapy of dysmetabolic syndrome. But it must be stressed that the use of metformin is off-label. It is also important to remember, that with effects there are side effects of metformin.

It may be news to you, how close the health of the gut is connected to our overall health. With the knowledge that food can be your medicine, choose your foods wisely. Add some or all of the above named foods that help you support beneficial gut bacteria, and take care of your health!

Jan
14
2017

How To Avoid Being Hungry

Dr. Ludwig gave a lecture about how to avoid being hungry at a conference in Las Vegas. The actual topic was “Always Hungry?” I attended the 24th Annual World Congress on Anti-Aging Medicine (Dec. 9-11, 2016) in Las Vegas where this lecture was given. Dr. Ludwig is a Harvard-based endocrinologist who has been researching weight loss methods and obesity for over 20 years. Here is a list of his major publications.

Dr. Ludwig stated that the low fat/high carb diet popular in the1980’s until the early 2000’s was misguided and probably even harmful. The theory at that time was that obesity was caused by too much saturated fat. This has since been proven to be wrong. Instead it has been proven that increased sugar intake is responsible for the obesity wave.

General information about weight gain

The carbohydrate-insulin model states that without insulin you cannot gain weight, because in order to store fat in fatty tissue you need insulin to transport fatty acids across the cell membrane of fat cells.

In this context it is important to note that high glycemic index food increases the blood sugar. This leads to stimulated insulin production, and the liver converts the extra sugar into fatty acids that get deposited as fat in fatty tissue.

The glycemic load from a person’s diet is the single best predictor for a rising blood sugar level. After food intake the blood sugar goes up, glucagon goes up, epinephrine goes up within 4 hours. It is the epinephrine, which after 4 hours makes you hungry again.

The nucleus accumbens is the addiction center. At 4 hours after a high glycemic index milk shake the nucleus accumbens was stimulated in 12 subjects of a double blind trial.

The nucleus accumbens does not work in isolation. It is not only involved in food satisfaction, but also in sexual satisfaction and even plays a role in satisfaction that some people get from playing video games.

Low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean or low-fat diet

In an Israeli study from the New England Journal of Medicine in 2008 investigators were interested to find out which diet was helping people to lose most weight. h

322 moderately obese subjects that were aged 52 years on average were randomized to one of the following diet groups.

They compared

  1. a low fat diet (Atkins type, restricted calorie) with a
  2. Mediterranean diet (low carb, restricted-calorie) and a
  3. Low fat/high carb diet (low fat, non-restricted-calorie)

What was the result? The mean weight losses were: 2.9 kg (low fat group), 4.4 kg (Mediterranean diet group), and 4.7 kg (low fat/high carb group). Of the 272 participants who had completed the intervention after two years of the study the weight loss was 3.3 kg, 4.6 kg, and 5.5 kg in the same sequence as above.

The ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is a measure for the heart attack risk, was examined next. It was 20% lower from the baseline in group 2 (Mediterranean diet group). The low fat groups (group 1 and 3) were 12% lower from the baseline.

36 subjects had diabetes. There was a clear winner with respect to lower fasting blood sugar and insulin levels, namely the Mediterranean diet (group 2).

The authors concluded that the Mediterranean diet is preferable to low fat diets as they have shown an improvement in lipid profiles and in control of diabetes.

The “POUNDS LOST” study

This was a 2-year study that investigated 4 different lower calorie diets to help people lose weight. Despite the significant difference in diet composition, these 811 free-living overweight or obese adults ages 30-70 from Boston, MA and Baton Rouge, LA lost 16 pounds at 6 months and 9 pounds at the end of two years. The diets were 1) low fat (20%) or 2) high fat (40%) 3) average protein (15%) or 4) high protein (25% of total calories).

The authors concluded that any reduced, calorie-controlled diet would help obese or overweight people to achieve weight loss that lasts. It is interesting that it did not matter whether the diet was low or high in fat, or had low or high protein content. What did matter was that all diets were low in sugar.

Sugar is the driving force

Dr. Ludwig pointed out that without insulin you couldn’t gain weight. High glycemic index food increases blood sugar. The glycemic load is the single best predictor to indicate whether a person will gain weight or lose weight when this food is consumed. It is an irony that in the 1980’s and 1990’s the obesity wave was created by the wrong assumption that a low fat/high carb diet would be heart healthy. We have abundant data available that show otherwise: high sugar content of food brings the calorie count up as everybody can read on the food labels.This will lead to weight increase, which has been abundantly proven. Sugar also stimulates your nucleus accumbens, the food addiction center. As you probably know it is extremely difficult to get out of this food addiction cycle unless you cut out sugar. You even need to go one step further and include many starchy foods that will within 30 minutes of digesting them turn into sugar. Your system makes no difference whether you eat a few teaspoons of sugar or two slices of white bread. The response of your pancreas is insulin, which gladly stores the fatty substances your liver made as fat.

How to get out of the vicious food cycle

As the quoted publications and many other ones have shown, it only matters that you limit your refined carb intake. You can vary the fat content and you can vary the protein content and still lose weight provided you watch the low carb intake. You also need portion control, which is a given! Study glycemic index and glycemic load sites on the Internet. The links I provided are just some examples. The more you educate yourself about carbs, the better for you. Note that many fruit and vegetables belong to the low-glycemic load/index foods. Avoid the high glycemic index foods like dates and cornflakes. Stick to low-glycemic index foods, which are less than 55. With regard to low-glycemic load food the values should be below 10.

The Mediterranean diet is a very desirable diet, which has been proven to be anti-inflammatory.

The zone diet of Barry Sears is also an anti-inflammatory diet and he summarizes this in this link.

How To Avoid Being Hungry

How To Avoid Being Hungry

Conclusion

I have summarized the content of a talk given by Dr. Ludwig. We learnt from this that sugar and refined carbs are the driving force that leads to “feeling hungry”. This stimulates your nucleus accumbens, the food addiction center. Let’s assume that a person is obese or overweight and wants to lose some weight. You need to start by being strict with yourself. Cut out sugar and high-glycemic foods. This will remove the food addiction factor that keeps you going back to the wrong, high calorie foods. You will also consume more low calorie vegetables and fruit, which have more fiber that fills you up. Once you are used to the new way of eating, there is no need to count calories. I recommend that you weigh yourself daily on body composition scales and record the results. This allows you to monitor your body mass index (BMI), your weight, your fat percentage, and your muscle percentage. Typically you will lose 2 to 3 pounds per week on such a low-calorie diet. Later the weight loss will slow down to 1 to 2 weeks per week until you reach your goal. Don’t go lower than a BMI of 21.0 to 22.0 and discuss your goal with your doctor.